Professional Business Ethics Notes

Professional Business Ethics Notes - Professional Business...

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Professional Business Ethics Notes Test Guide: 1.) Characteristics of Moral standards: Moral standards concern behavior that is of serious consequence to human welfare, that can profoundly injure or benefit people. Moral standards take priority over other standards, including self interest. We take moral standards to be more important than other things guiding out actions. Their soundness depends on the adequacy of the reasons that support or justify them, depend on the quality of the arguments or reasoning that supports them. 2.) What’s wrong with Ethical Relativism? The theory that what is right is determined by what a culture or society says is right. The only ethical standard for judging an action is the moral system of the society in which the act occurs. 1.) Undermines any moral criticism of another society, as long as they are sticking to their own moral standards. 2.) For a relativist there is no such thing as ethical progress . 3.) Can not criticize principles or practices accepted by their own society. 3.)Criteria for the Adequacy of Moral Judgements: Moral Judgements should be logical . We should be able to support them with reasons and evidence, not just emotion, sentiment, or social and personal preference. Should be based on Facts . Must gather relevant information as possible before making them. Should be based on acceptable moral principles . Principles that are unambiguous and can withstand critical scrutiny and rational criticism. 4.a) What is psychological Egoism?
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Psychological Egoism says that all action are in fact selfishly motivated and therefor truly unselfish acts are impossible. 4b.) Ethical Egoism Egoism is the belief that one will act in their own self interest. A company does not pull tires from the streets immediately, even though they are causing accidents, because it is not in the companies best self interest. 5.) Key elements of Utilitarianism When deciding which action will produce the greatest happiness, we must consider unhappiness or pain as well as happiness. Actions affect people to different degrees, add up the pleasures and pains and go with the action the produces most pleasure. Actions are evaluated according to their consequences, actions produce different outcomes, everything might, in principle, be morally right in some particular circumstance. Seeks to maximize happiness in the short and long term. Acknowledges that we might not ever know for certain what the future consequences of our actions may be. When choosing among actions, utilitarianism does not require us to disregard our own pleasure. Nor should we give it added weight. Consider both equally when deciding what action to take. 6 . ) What Does Kant say is good without qualification?
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