Lazy Thinking3 - Lazing Thinky Demonstration Demonstration...

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Unformatted text preview: Lazing Thinky Demonstration Demonstration 1. Write all the letters of the alphabet. Which team won the NCAA Basketball Championship in 2009? 1. Write all the letters of the alphabet. z y x w v u t s r q p o n m l k j i h g f e d c b a Routine Thinking Routine Thinking & Verification Which team won the NCAA Basketball Championship in 2009? Connecticut beat Louisville Demonstration Demonstration 1. You hear gunshots on your block. Later, you learn there was a murder down the street from your house. An adolescent is dead. The reason for the killing? Short­cuts to Causality Short­cuts to Causality 1. You hear gunshots on your block. Later, you learn there was a murder down the street from your house. An adolescent is dead. Did you say drugs or gangs? 1. Rate each statement on a scale of 1 (completely disagree) to 10 (completely agree). Each person in the US should be treated equally under the law. Elderly persons should have seats reserved for them on public transportation. To remedy disadvantages, some minorities should be given preference in hiring. Gay and lesbian partners should receive the same government protections and benefits that heterosexual partners receive. Kids under 15 who commit crimes should be punished the same as adults. Demonstration Demonstration ► ► ► ► ► Categorical Thinking & Philosophical Categorical Thinking & Philosophical Inconsistency 1. Rate each statement on a scale of 1 (completely agree) to 10 (completely disagree). ► ► ► ► ► Each person in the US should be treated equally under the law. Elderly persons should have seats reserved for them on public transportation. To remedy disadvantages, some minorities should be given preference in hiring. Gay and lesbian partners should receive the same government protections and benefits that heterosexual partners receive. Kids under 15 who commit crimes should be punished the same as adults. Demonstration Demonstration 1. One day you learn that your neighbor is a convicted sex offender. The next day you read in the newspaper that your neighbor won an award for service to children. How do you feel about the neighbor’s service? 1. Change New Information to Fit Pre­ Change New Information to Fit Pre­ set Categories One day you learn that your neighbor is a convicted sex offender. The next day you read in the newspaper that your neighbor won an award for service to children. How do you feel about the neighbor’s service? Demonstration Demonstration 1. ► Yes or No? Since family and friends often distract students from studying, it would be best to discourage students from seeing these people. I have remained in a dating relationship even though I felt stuck or felt like I was no longer in love. Generally speaking, Californians are more likeable than other Americans. ► ► 1. ► Yes or No? Since family and friends often distract students from studying, it would be best to discourage students from seeing these people. I have remained in a dating relationship even though I felt stuck or felt like I was no longer in love. Generally speaking, Californians are more likeable than other Americans. Need to Belong & Need to Belong & In­group/Out­group ► ► Demonstration Demonstration 1. What colors are your nearest neighbors’ front doors? What color are the room number signs next to the doors in this building? Bad Memories Bad Memories 1. What colors are your nearest neighbors’ front doors? What color are the room number signs next to the doors in this building? Demonstration Demonstration 1. On the next slide, there will be three images. Describe what you see. Demonstration Demonstration Salient Stimuli Salient Stimuli Demonstration Demonstration 1. a. Which statement in each set is more understandable? Mission Accomplished vs. a. Major combat operations are now over a. b. That guy changes his views when new facts come along vs. That guy is wishy­washy The killer should suffer like the victim vs. The killer should be taught empathy for persons he hurt a. b. Emotions Control Thinking Emotions Control Thinking 1. a. Which statement in each set is more understandable? Mission Accomplished vs. a. Major combat operations are now over a. b. That guy changes his views when new facts come along vs. That guy is wishy­washy The killer should suffer like the victim vs. The killer should be taught empathy for persons he hurt a. b. Demonstration Demonstration Will your grade in this class be in the top 25%, second 25%, third 25%, or bottom 25%? Are your friends generally more or less attractive than the average person? Obsessed with Self, Self­bias, & Obsessed with Self, Self­bias, & In­group Bias Will your grade in this class be in the top 25%, second 25%, third 25%, or bottom 25%? Are your friends generally more or less attractive than the average person? People, even scientists, are “Lazy Thinkers.” ► One goal of education is to undo obstacles to rational thinking. ► Human thinking is “boxed in” by these cognitive restrictions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Lazy Thinking Lazy Thinking Routine thinking, verification Short­cuts to causality Categorical Thinking, philosophical inconsistency Change new information to fit pre­set categories People must belong to others, in­group/out­group Bad Memories Salient Stimuli Emotions control thinking Obsessed with self/self bias/in­group bias Lazy Thinking Lazy Thinking ► Can you read this? Olny srmat poelpe can. I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt! Problems with Thinking­­Schutt Problems with Thinking­­Schutt 1. 2. 3. 4. Overgeneralization: concluding that what is true for some cases is true for all cases Selective Observation: looking only at things that are consistent with our preferences or beliefs or that catch our attention Illogical Reasoning: jumping to conclusions or arguing on the basis of invalid assumptions Resistance to Change: reluctance to change ideas in light of new information “Weird Things”: Problems with Thinking 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Theory influences observation The observer changes the observed Equipment constructs results Anecdotes do not make a science Scientific language does not make a science Bold statements do not make claims true Heresy does not equal correctness Burden of Proof Rumors do not equal reality Unexplained is not inexplicable “Weird Things”: Problems with Thinking 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Failures are rationalized After­the­fact reasoning Coincidence—Odds of co­occurring events are often high, we pay attention only to salient events Representativeness—what are the underlying factors that might explain events? Emotive words and false analogies Ad Ignorantiam Ad Hominem and Tu Quoque Hasty Generalization Overreliance on Authorities Either­Or “Weird Things”: Problems with Thinking 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Circular Reasoning Slippery Slope Effort Inadequacies and the Need for Certainty, Control, and Simplicity—we need security and are lazy thinkers Problem­Solving Inadequacies—we are not rational and seem to “need” causes Ideological Immunity Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Ten ways that you and other sociologists can overcome “Lazy Thinking” 1. Discover (not assume) Causal Relationships Independent Variable: A thing that when it changes causes another to change. Dependent Variable: A thing that changes in response to changes in another thing. X Independent Variable Y Dependent Variable (Our research topic, what we try to explain) Y X Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Ten ways that you and other sociologists can overcome “Lazy Thinking” 1. Discover (not assume) Causal Relationships One thing causes another when there is: a) Association—when changes in things occur in tandem b) Time Order—for change in one thing to cause change in another, the change in the first must occur prior to the change in the other c) Nonspuriousness—associated changes in two things is not coincidental or caused by changes in a third thing *** d) Mechanism—a plausible reason that changes in one thing should cause changes in the other e) Context—specification of conditions that permit or favor the causal relationship Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ c) Nonspuriousness—associated changes in two things is not coincidental or caused by changes in a third thing A spurious relationship is one where a third (extraneous) variable causes two others to change in tandem, making it look like they are related in a particular way. Education Education + + ­ + X Crime Crime Z Y Size of City Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Ten ways that you and other sociologists can overcome “Lazy Thinking” 1. Test Ideas Against Empirical Reality You are a sociologist, meaning that you attempt to explain what actually occurs in the social world—not what ought to occur or what “The Divine” intended to occur. Test hypotheses with data. Plan and Carry Out Investigations Systematically (marked by thoroughness and regularity) Use good methods and statistics. Avoid salient cases and anecdotal information. Do not Become Personally Invested in Your Results Your beliefs and emotions may pick topics of interest, but science demands dispassionate analysis. 1. 1. Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Ten ways that you and other sociologists can overcome “Lazy Thinking” 1. Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Document all Procedures and Disclose them Publicly a. You will be more honest when you disclose to others b. The community of scholars may evaluate and assess your claims Clarify Your Assumptions for Your Audience The world is big and complex, a study is small and simple, so we must make assumptions (that are informed by sociological knowledge) to start and/or make sense of a project. 1. E.g., Persons with low income in my study are poor. Assumption: Low income equals low wealth Rather than: Wealthier persons can afford to not earn much E.g., After finding that spanking increases juvenile delinquency… Assumption: Kids interpret violence as appropriate Rather than: Rationally see violence as effective Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Ten ways that you and other sociologists can overcome “Lazy Thinking” 1. 1. Specify the Meanings of Your Terms a. Broad concepts must be operationalized in research: “Abused Kids” becomes “Persons under 15 who were hit or slapped with enough force to leave a mark after an hour.” b. Explicit definitions help give the scope and generalizability of the research (This is one way that research articles become dry and boring, unlike what humans prefer) Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Ten ways that you and other sociologists can overcome “Lazy Thinking” Maintain a Skeptical Stance Toward Current Knowledge a. Research is often limited by: errors, funding, scope, bias 1. Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Ten ways that you and other sociologists can overcome “Lazy Thinking” Maintain a Skeptical Stance Toward Current Knowledge a. Research is often limited by: errors, funding, scope, bias b. Phenomena under study may have changed For example: George Wallace was a Democrat 1. “I say segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever. Richard Nixon was a Republican c. There are multiple possible causes for phenomena For example: One study may find that lower IQ leads to poverty, what else might? dignity as the Presidency.” “Scrubbing floors and emptying bedpans has as much Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Ten ways that you and other sociologists can overcome “Lazy Thinking” 1. Maintain a Skeptical Stance Toward Current Knowledge d. No single project is enough All research is limited, the world is too big to be captured in one project This takes some burden off the researcher—you cannot do it all Avoid “slamming” reports that do not study everything e. Recognize your own Limitations Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Ten ways that you and other sociologists can overcome “Lazy Thinking” 1. Respect the Community of Scholars No individual can do it all, so sociological knowledge resides in a community and its repositories of research Burden of Proof? Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Sociologists Overcome ‘Lazy Thinking’ Ten ways that you and other sociologists can overcome “Lazy Thinking” 1. Your Work Should be Embedded in Previous Research and Theories a. Your research must begin where the community of scholars left off. Everything must be grounded in what has gone before­­So use others’ findings and theory! b. You should work to see if others’ findings hold up. Sociology has replication built into almost every project— red flag unexpected findings. c. Help others avoid “lazy thinking”­­educate them on how your research may support or contradict the prevailing scholarly views of the social world. ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course SOCI 104 at San Jose State University .

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