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Chapter 7 PolicymakingNotesandReadingNotes

Chapter 7 PolicymakingNotesandReadingNotes - Chapter 7...

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Chapter 7 Policymaking Votes on controversial legislation -- to fund or cancel the program, to criminalize a decriminalized behavior, and so on are dramatic, visibly policymaking moments. Much policymaking is less visible. Many new laws attract little attention and once passed by legislators, those laws must be implemented, which creates further opportunities for behind-the-scenes policymaking (195). In United States, court rulings have the power to shape the law. Appellate courts, for example, can rule that legislators have exceeded their authority by passing laws that are unconstitutional, and general that the way a particular law is being applied are enforced is not legal. Dramatic cases the rover's Wade ruling, which dictated that states could not restrict women's access to abortion during the first trimester pregnancy, Supreme Court rulings can shift fundamental perceptions of what is considered legal. Thus, sometimes government agencies and courts also act as policymakers. We should not equate policy with law. A wide range of organized nongovernmental bodies -- think of corporations, churches, professions, charities, said their own worlds or policies. When a homeless shelter announces rules regarding who is qualified to seek admission how people must behave if they are not to be to remain the shelter, this is a formal policy-making(195). Policy domains -- the policy domains that part of the political system focuses on a particular social issue, such as family problems, criminal justice, health policy. Beginning tonight includes many people are concerned with the issue addressed by that domain, legislators, other officials, could upset the government. EX Congress has committees that deal with health issues; various federal agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control National Institutes of Health, addresses issues outside the government, their interest groups, think tanks, medical professionals and other experts concerned health policy. An Arena is a setting where claims can be presented (a congressional committee's hearings might example). A policy domain is a network of people who share an interest in the particulars policy issue, arenas can be committee hearings, specialized newsletters, and so on. Just as claims makers must compete for media coverage and public attention, it must also compete for places at legislators agendas. During this process claims makers may wait years until they finally get legislators to address these concerns (197). Attempting to influence policymaking can require patience. The political scientist John W. Kingdon offers a model 1) the problem recognition stream 2) a policy proposal stream, 3) the political stream. Each stream is constantly flowing, but they often have minimal contact with one another (198). In the process of problem recognition, claims makers identify troubled conditions, NATO's conditions, devise compelling rhetoric to persuade others to become concerned about
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those conditions, and campaign to bring those conditions to the notice of the press and public, policymakers (198).
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