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Unformatted text preview: 4 The New Chinese Republic Although The 1911 Revolution brought an end to the Qing dynasy it was nearly bloodless when compared to other violent revolutions that oveThrew corrUpt monarchies, for example France in 1789 or Russia in 1917. By the t of the Twentieth cenUry the demand for change perMeated Chinese society During the previous decades a deep cleav- age had developed between the Han Chinese majority and the alien anchus because of the dynasy's inabili to protect its people om foreign encroachment Every class with any polItical clout had signi cant complaints. e scholars d the genry were alienated by the dynass form efforts erchants and TeaTy porT Chinese bierly opposed preferential eatment accorded to foreigners in China Stu dents were disgusted at the obvious backwardness of anchu rUle, specially when compaed to Japan, the young iMperalist power and model for many Chinese revolutionares hese Goups, aer years without working together, came together briey in 1911 to force the abdication of the Qing emperor The Groundwork for Revolution n 1902 the Empress Dowager Cixi retUed wth her entourage om the weste provinces where she had been hiding during the foreign siege of Beijing claimed responsibility for the Boxer uprsing and declared that a longawaited reforM program would begin ronically many of the proposals made in 1898 by reforMers Kg Youwei and Liang Qichao were adopted, at least on paper But these eorts came too late to satis those Chinese who wanted real change, and rTher more had the effect of continuing to underMine anchu conTo I 1905 the chus, aer years of foreign insistence, terMinated the centiesold civil service examination system eir attempt to "mod TE NEW CHINESE REPUBLIC 73 eize Chinas educational system with the creation of new schools and cuicula alienated the gentry, in other words, Han Chinese who had succeeded in the exams or whose sons would eventually rse to the top of the existing Concian hierarchy Now ears of study and the pre stige associated wIth passing the dicult exaMinations were vir- ally worthless e class that had an interest in preserving the status quo was now no longer its supporter housands of stUdents were st abroad and thus had to lea foreign languages; their careers were forced to take new directions he Han gentry resented this afont to their status by the alien anchus. any of their sons who stUdied in the West and Japan became revolutionarIes 1905 The were aut 5, ChInese stUdents in Jap; by e followng year the we 13, Japn was a logcal choice for many Chinese sking an educaon abroad bause of its PxMi, but the huge increase in the num of Chinese Udents sUdyng in Japan was not only the result of endng the examnaons but also reect e prde Aians felt aer Japan astonded the wold wIh its crUshng defeat of...
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