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Unformatted text preview: 4 The New Chinese Republic Although The 1911 Revolution brought an end to the Qing dynas¡y it was nearly bloodless when compared to other violent revolutions that ove¢Threw corrUpt monarchies, for example France in 1789 or Russia in 1917. By the t of the Twentieth cen¡Ury the demand for change perMeated Chinese society£ During the previous decades a deep cleav- age had developed between the Han Chinese majority and the alien ¤anchus because of the dynas¡y's inabili¥ to protect its people ¦om foreign encroachment§ Every class with any polItical clout had signi¨© cant complaints. ª«e scholars ¬d the gen¡ry were alienated by the dynas¥s ®form efforts¯ ¤erchants and T°eaTy porT Chinese bi¡¡erly opposed preferential ±eatment accorded to foreigners in China² Stu³ dents were disgusted at the obvious backwardness of ¤anchu rUle, ´specially when compa¢ed to Japan, the young iMperµalist power and model for many Chinese revolutionar¶es· ªhese Goups, a¸er years without working together, came together brie¹y in 1911 to force the abdication of the Qing emperorº The Groundwork for Revolution »n 1902 the Empress Dowager Cixi retU¼ed w½th her entourage ¦om the weste¾ provinces where she had been hiding during the foreign siege of Beijing¿ claimed responsibility for the Boxer uprµsing¿ and declared that a longÀawaited reforM program would begin² »ronically¿ many of the proposals made in 1898 by reforMers K¬g Youwei and Liang Qichao were adopted, at least on paper£ But these eÁorts came too late to satisÂ those Chinese who wanted real change, and ÃrTherÄ more had the effect of continuing to underMine ¤anchu conT°oÅ I 1905 the ¤ ¬chus, aÆer years of foreign insistence, terMinated the centÇiesÀold civil service examination systemÈ ªÉeir attempt to "modÀ TE NEW CHINESE REPUBLIC 73 eÊizeË ChinaÌs educational system with the creation of new schools and cu¢¢icula alienated the gentry, in other words, Han Chinese who had succeeded in the exams or whose sons would eventually r¶se to the top of the existing ConÃcian hierarchy¯ Now Íears of study and the pre stige associated wIth passing the diÎcult exaMinations were virÏ- ally worthless¯ ªÉe class that had an interest in preserving the status quo was now no longer its supporter² ªhousands of stUdents were sÐt abroad and thus had to lea¾ foreign languages; their careers were forced to take new directions¯ Ñhe Han gentry resented this af¦ont to their status by the alien ¤anchus. ¤any of their sons who stUdied in the West and Japan became revolutionarIesÒ ¡ 1905 ThÓe were aÔut 5,ÕÖ ChInese stUdents in Jap¬; by ×e follow½ng year thÓe we® 13,ÕÖØ JapÙn was a log¶cal choice for many Chinese sÚking an educaÛon abroad bÜause of its Px¶Mi¥, but the huge increase in the numÝ of Chinese ÞUdents s¡Udy¶ng in Japan was not only the result of end¶ng the exam¶naÛonsß but also reàectá ×e pr¶de Aâians felt aÆer Japan astoãnded the woäld wI¡h its crUsh¶ng defeat of...
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course ANTH 114 at San Jose State.