SW131 Communities Week 1 and 2

SW131 Communities Week 1 and 2 - Communities Theories...

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Unformatted text preview: Communities Theories & Perspectives on Community Structural (political, legal, geographic entities), Human Ecology (Competition, Segregation, Integration); Psychosocial Perspectives (cohesion). Social class, Power Social Capital & Collective Efficacy Study of Chicago Neighborhoods. What Influences Collective Efficacy? Stability and length of residence in a community; Homeownership; Concentration of poverty; Perceived sense of powerlessness: Impact of neighborhoods on bio-psycho-social aspects of child and adolescent development. Theories that help understand the ways in which neighborhood and community processes may affect children's development: Stress; Social Organization; Institutional Resources; Epidemic theories. Computer Networks as Social Networks - Utility in community work Community Development & Community Organizing: Mapping; Assessment; Coalitions; Empowerment. VIDEO: Holding Ground (Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative). Communities, Part One Kirst-Ashman, Chapter 8 Kirst-Ashman, Chapter 9 Wellman Article on Computer Networks Smith Article on Social Capital Outline Defining Communities Theoretical Perspectives Nongeographical Communities Geographical Communities Membership in Multiple Communities Collective Efficacy Social Capital Definition of communities A number of people who share something in common... ...that brings them together or connects them in some way... ...and that distinguishes them from others... Common features: location, interest, identification, culture, and/or activities. Important to note that it could be multiple features Each dimension of commonality has implications for social workers in terms of community organization and development. Neogeographical vs. Geographical communities Theoretical Perspectives on Communities OUTLINE Social Systems Theories Human Ecology Theories Social-Psychological Theories Structural Theories Functionalist Theories Conflict Theories Symbolic Interactionist Theories Empowerment Theories Which Theoretical Perspective Is Best? Theoretical Perspectives on Communities How might we understand the purpose and function of communities? Social Systems Theories Based on systems theory Boundaries: uniforms Subsystems: businesses, governmental units, churches, schools, health care organizations, and social welfare agencies Equifinality: options a community has to solve its problems Inputs and Outputs: resources of a community Entropy: farmers moving away because can't make ends meet; high crime in urban community Human Ecology Theories Focuses on the relationship of populations to their environment. How clusters of people and organizations are arranged in a community's space becomes important. This approach focuses on population and resource distribution and examines inequities in access to resources. It looks at: Competition: How individuals and groups compete for scarce resources. This is related to social class. Segregation: Isolation of groups who share some characteristic e.g. race, income, age. Integration: How well communities are able to integrate various groups of people into a functional whole. Social-Psychological Theories Involves how community members feel about each other. Refers to a sense of cohesion (or a feeling of "we"), shared identity (belonging), and shared norms about how a community should be run. Examining all these aspects of a community can provide insight into how a community a composed, how it is structured, and what resources exist (both material and social-psychological) to assist in addressing the needs of all members of a community. Structural Theories This includes defining a community as a political and legal entity that fulfill many legal functions and mediate between the state and the individual. Voting and taxes may be examples. Communities are also seen as geographic entities that is defined by geographic boundaries. Finally, a community can be assessed by examining its power structure, i.e., who has power and status in the community these are individuals who influence decision-making and often have greater access to resources. Functionalist Theories Focus on community's function or purpose and how community can continue working to attain How community has grown, acted, and matured over time Manifest and Latent Functions Manifest: intended and recognized consequences of an activity or social process. E.g., education = knowledge, skill, cultural values Latent: unintended consequences of an activity or social process that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants. E.g., education = babysitting, matchmaking Positive and Negative Social Functions Negative: undesirable consequences of an activity or social process. E.g., education for all > many over educated who can't get jobs; reduction of drugs > increase in price of drug thus increase in crime to pay for drugs Conflict Theories Direct opposition to functionalist theories Continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources; conflict (struggle between opposing forces or interests) and discrimination assumed to be the norm Interested in power and change (transition or transformation from one condition or state to another) Two categories: Class Conflict: ranking of people in society based on their wealth, power, and family background. Interest Group Conflict: contradictory values and interests among social groups based on race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion, politics, or values. Symbolic Interactionist Theories Microlevel analysis of how people act toward one another and how they make sense of their lives. Use of language, words, and symbols to create and maintain or social reality. In or interactions with others, we become the products and creators of our social reality. Concept of role is central social category or position with a set of expected behavior patterns Goffman and stage/actors/drama analogy Deviant Behavior just as appropriate behavior is learned, so is deviant behavior, through interaction with others Labeling Theory no behavior inherently bad, society determines which behaviors it considers deviant and labels them as such. Empowerment Theories Focuses on strengths and resiliency Supporting the development of self-confidence, establishing control over one's life, working together to improve the quality of life, and gaining political power to enhance input and equality The Strengths Perspective and Communities 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Each community has assets and strengths Community problems viewed as jumping-off points for improvement and growth You can never fully realize how far a community can grow and improve itself Social workers most effective when working collaboratively Each community has multiple resources Critical to care for community's overall well-being and provide community members with support. Which Theoretical Perspective Is Best? Which one do you like? Book advocates for combining to look at a problem through multiple lens. Good chart on page 236. Community Context: Neogeographical Communities Serve a number of purposes to enhance members' sense of well-being: Provide an arena for forming relationships where a person can receive support, encouragement, praise, and information. Relationships can provide feeling of belonging and connectedness. Sense of identity, who they are Make people feel that they belong and are an integral part of the community even when apart. Community Context: Neogeographical Communities Examples: Professional Communities: The National Association of Social Workers (professional or special interest organization) Spiritual Communities Ethnic Communities and Communities of People of Color Communities Based on Sexual Orientation Internet Communities (Wellman article) When computer systems connect people and organizations, they are inherently social. Community, like computers, has become networked. Although community was once synonymous with densely knit, bounded neighborhood groups, it is now seen as a less bounded social network of relationships that provide sociability, support, information, and a sense of belonging. Where once people interacted door-to-door in villages (subject to public support and social control), they now interact household-tohousehold and person-to-person. Internet Communities (Wellman article) Studies address a vigorous public debate about whether people can find community online. Critics wonder whether relationships between people who never see, smell, or hear each other can be the basis for true community. By contrast, enthusiasts see the Internet as extending and transforming community. They point to the ability of the Internet to span distances and time zones at low cost, to sustain relationships based on shared interests (even when the participants are residentially dispersed), and to provide powerful links between people and dispersed knowledge. Internet Communities (Wellman article) The Internet is now used by a majority of North Americans, although its growth rate is slowing and may stabilize at about 60% of adults. The digital divide is decreasing rapidly in North America, although socioeconomic status (education, occupation, and income) remains an important differentiator. Internet Communities (Wellman article) Survey-based evidence about the Internet's effect on community has been mixed. Most cross-sectional studies show that those frequently online are more involved in community. By contrast, one study suggests that extensive online involvement took people away from interaction with household and community members. Moreover, the only true longitudinal study found that some "newbies" became more depressed, alienated, and isolated during the first 6 months of computer use. However, as the newbies gained more experience with the Internet, their depression and alienation disappeared, and their social contact increased enough to have a positive impact on their overall interactions with community members. Internet Communities (Wellman article) The Internet is not destroying community but is extending the types of networked community that have already become prevalent in the developed Western world. Old ties with relatives and former neighbors are maintained; new ties are developed among people sharing interests. It is not only that time and space become less important in computer mediated communication, but that it is easy to communicate with large groups of community members (using lists) and to bring unconnected community members into direct contact. Internet Communities (Wellman article) The recent case of "Netville" (a suburb of Toronto) is especially interesting, because here neighborhood access to a high-speed Internet service helped bring neighborhood members together for face-to-face gettogethers, from visits in private homes to semipublic barbeques. Those who were part of the high-speed service knew three times as many neighbors as the unwired and visited with 1.6 times as many. Nor was the Internet only used socially: Netville residents used their local discussion list to mobilize against the real estate developer and the local Internet service provider. Netville may be a special case because the residents were newly arrived and excited to be part of an Internet experiment. Yet recent work in Michigan and Los Angeles shows how the Internet can reinforce traditional community development approaches. Community Context: Geographical Communities Population size, density, and heterogeneity important demographic variables used to characterize geographic communities. Metropolitan (at least one urbanized area of 50,000 or more) and Micropolitan (10,000-50,000) = Urban; Rural = 2,500 or less Community Context: Geographical Communities Rural Communities Population Trends in Rural Areas: rural population actually growing; large numbers still live in rural communities. Employment Issues in Rural Communities: decline in employment in common rural industries such as farming increasing reliance on gov't programs. Other Problems and Issues Faced by Rural Communities: lack of services; health care; poverty, lack of transportation; inadequate childcare; unemployment Generalist Social Work Practice in Rural Communities: lack of large social service agencies; interagency cooperation; understanding community, knowing values, and developing relationships; emphasizing strengths inherent Community Context: Geographical Communities Urban Communities Vast array of social problems, exceptional diversity, and potential range of resources. Population denser and diverse. Range of industries, businesses, rent levels, and transportation availability and costs. Bustling tangle of concrete, traffic, noise, and questions about air quality. More condensed interaction and contact with many people Political situation intense with many layers of people. Problems Inherent in Urban Communities Greater frequency and visibility of problems such as poverty, housing, crime and violence, etc. Discriminatory behavior on account of diversity Migration of people unprepared for pressures and demands Financial shortfalls or unavailability of resources Psychological stress and increase general anxieties Membership in Multiple Communities Each individual a member of multiple communities Involvement in multiple communities reinforces an individual's sense of belonging and expands potential access to resources and support. Assessment of Geographic Communities and Empowerment Kirst-Ashman, Chapter 9 Outline People and Power in Communities Citizen Participation Social Networks Empowerment and Communities Assessment of Communities Understanding the Dimensions of a Community Community Building Mapping Community Assets and Empowerment People and Power in Communities Four parts to definition of power: Potential even if not used, potential is there Moving people on a chosen course Produce an effect or achieve some end Power structure who holds and who calls the shots Information: knowledge is power Wealth: money is power Reputation: well regarded (milk commercials) High status: position, earnings, degree, accomplishments Decision-making positions: as part of position requirements Laws and policies: attorneys, police officers, politician Interpersonal connections: large number or fewer but powerful Who Has Power in Communities and Why? Citizen Participation Dynamic, voluntary involvement of community members to address issues and concerns affecting their community and improve social policies, laws, and programs. Voluntary On themselves, not on outside help Members are aware of issues and problems Targets laws, rules, and regulations Social Networks Formal or informal linkage of people or organizations that may share resources, skills, contacts, and knowledge with one another. Vary according to number involved, frequency of contact or communication with one another, how strongly members feel about being part of the network, strength of common bonds or characteristics, and geographic distance among members. Natural Helping Networks A group of nonprofessional people volunteering their time and resource to help either an individual or group of people in need. Two functions: Provide support, emotional or in form of resources Provide information and help connect people with other needed resources Empowerment and Communities Personal Empowerment When they can directly control what's happening in their own lives. Social Empowerment When people have access to opportunities and resources in order to make personal choices and maintain some control over their environment. The Interrelationship of Personal and Social Empowerment Hard to see where one ends and the other begins; when a person has social empowerment, it is much more possible to have personal empowerment. Assessment of Communities Two ways of looking at a community in order to understand it: Community Problems or Needs what's wrong or missing in a situation. Need identification describes health and social service requirements in a geographic or social area. Need assessment estimating the relative important of these needs Assets and Strengths emphasizes the communities capacities, skills, and assets. Mapping assets what's going right, what resources exist, and what opportunities might be developed. Capacity building ability to increase the leadership and organization skills of local people for the purpose of strengthening their own organizations and networking capacities Understanding the Dimensions of a Community 1. Identifying Information 2. Demographics 3. History of Area 4. Geography and environmental influences on community 5. Beliefs and attitudes 6. Local Politics 7. Local economy and businesses 8. Income distribution 9. Housing 10. Education facilities and programs 11. Health and welfare systems 12. Public safety and justice system 13. Sources of information and public opinion 14. Summary assessment of community issues Community Building Process of enhancing a community's strengths by linking community residents, community organizations, and external resources to tackle community problems and working together towards positive change. Four major principles: Working Together components of a community and other systems working synchronously together. New Alliances and Cooperation internal and external cooperation The Importance of Targeting Neighborhoods focus on a distinct geographic area whose residents are linked. Building on Neighborhood Strengths Mapping Community Assets and Empowerment Capacity-building approach to community assessment. Two components: Releasing Individual Capacities each resident has positive qualities and capacities that can contribute to the community's well-being. Health assisting those with health problems, seniors, disabilities Administrative and Interpersonal Work Skills organization or office skills Construction and Repair being handy/fixing things Maintenance time and effort to maintain and clean up facilities Food skills at food preparation Recreation and Entertainment organize teams, music talent Assistance in Daily Activities child care, transportation, household tasks Anything Else infinite sources Mapping Assets of Associations, Organizations, and Institutions: Forming Community Linkages Creative ideas about how to get these systems to work together to provide services and meet needs. Community associations, organization, and institutions: AA, Public Parks, Schools, Police Departments, Hospitals, colleges and universities Collective Efficacy and Social Capital UNDERSTANDING COMMUNITY DYNAMICS Will a group of local teenagers hanging out on the corner be allowed to intimidate passers-by, or will they be dispersed and their parents called? Will a vacant lot become a breeding ground for rats and drug dealers, or will it be transformed into a community garden? Such decisions exert a power over a neighborhood's crime rate strong enough to overcome the far better known influences of race, income, family and individual temperament. They tested this hypothesis in a landmark study of Chicago neighborhoods. The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods From June to October 1995, trained observers drove a sport utility vehicle at 5 miles per hour down every street in 196 carefully selected Chicago neighborhoods. As they drove, a pair of video recorders, one on each side of the S.U.V., recorded social activities and physical features: litter, graffiti, drug deals, public drinking, everything within the camera's view. When the researchers were done, 11,408 blocks had been observed and videotaped. Then the police records on homicide, robbery and burglary were pulled for each of these 196 neighborhoods, along with in-person surveys of 8,782 residents. Researchers reported that most major crimes were linked to two neighborhood variables: concentrated poverty and collective efficacy. Sampson, R.J., Raudenbush, S.W., & Earls, F. (1997).Neighborhoods and Violent Crime: A Multilevel Study of Collective Efficacy. Science (277, 15 August), 918-924. How is collective efficacy defined or operationalized? Collective efficacy was conceptualized as informal social control and social cohesion or trust. "Informal social control" was assessed by a five-item scale. Residents were asked about the likelihood ("Would you say it is very likely, likely, neither likely nor unlikely, unlikely, or very unlikely?") that their neighbors could be counted on to intervene in various ways if: (i) children were skipping school and hanging out on a street corner, (ii) children were spray-painting graffiti on a local building, (iii) children were showing disrespect to an adult, (iv) a fight broke out in front of their house, and (v) the fire station closest to their home was threatened with budget cuts. "Social cohesion and trust" were also represented by five items. Respondents were asked how strongly they agreed (on a five-point scale) that: i) people around here are willing to help their neighbors, ii) this is a close-knit neighborhood, iii) people in this neighborhood can be trusted, iv) people in this neighborhood generally don't get along with each other, v) people in this neighborhood do not share the same values The two scales into a summary measure labeled collective efficacy. What Influences Collective Efficacy? Stability and length of residence in a community: A high rate of residential mobility, especially in areas of decreasing population, fosters institutional disruption and weakened social controls over collective life. A major reason is that the formation of social ties takes time. Homeownership: Financial investment also provides homeowners with a vested interest in supporting the commonweal of neighborhood life. What Influences Collective Efficacy? Concentration of poverty: Recent decades have witnessed an increasing geographical concentration of lower income residents, especially minority groups and female-headed families. This stems inpart from changes related to the deindustrialization of central cities, along with the out-migration of middle-class residents. This economic stratification by race and place thus fuels the neighborhood concentration of cumulative forms of disadvantage, intensifying the social isolation of lower income, minority, and single-parent residents from key resources supporting collective social control and fosters a sense of powerlessness. Perceived sense of powerlessness: Social science research has demonstrated, at the individual level, the direct role of socioeconomic status (SES) in promoting a sense of control, efficacy, and even biological health itself. A similar process may work at the community level. The alienation, exploitation, and dependency brought on by resource deprivation stymies collective efficacy. Even if personal ties are strong in areas of concentrated disadvantage, they may be weakly related to collective actions. Results of the Analysis Together, three dimensions of neighborhood stratification-- concentrated disadvantage, immigration concentration, and residential stability-- explained 70% of the neighborhood variation in collective efficacy. Collective efficacy in turn influenced the relationship between residential stability and disadvantage with multiple measures of violence, which is consistent with a major theme in neighborhood theories of social organization. Conclusion So what the researchers conclude from this is that getting a crew to clean up the mess might have an impact for two weeks and go back to where it was. The point of intervention is not to clean up the neighborhood, but to work on its collective efficacy. If you organized a community meeting in a local church or school, it's a chance for people to meet and solve problems. If one of the ideas that comes out of the meeting is for them to clean up the graffiti in the neighborhood, the benefit will be much longer lasting, and will probably impact the development of kids in that area. But it would be based on this community action -- not on a work crew coming in from the outside. However, the image of local residents working collectively to solve their own problems is not the whole picture. What happens within neighborhoods is in part shaped by socioeconomic and housing factors linked to the wider political economy. Conclusion In addition to encouraging communities to mobilize against violence through "self-help" strategies of informal social control, perhaps reinforced by partnerships with agencies of formal social control (community policing), strategies to address the social and ecological changes that beset many inner-city communities need to be considered. These include social and economic development. Recognizing that collective efficacy matters does not imply that inequalities at the neighborhood level can be neglected. Social Capital The institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society's social interactions. Not just the sum, but the glue The stock of active connections among people: the trust, mutual understanding, and shared values and behaviors that bind the members of human networks and communities and make cooperative action possible. Bonding (exclusive) vs. bridging (inclusive) social capital Social Capital on the Decline in the U.S.? Putnam blames: Changes in family structure (more people living alone) Suburban sprawl (travel much further to work, to show, and to enjoy leisure opportunities) Electronic entertainment, like television, privatized leisure time. Generational change (the civic generation is now passing) Ladd believes its just churning Concrete Benefits of Social Capital Child development Cleaner, friendlier, safer Mitigate effects of SES disadvantage Better health From Neurons to Neighborhoods Most urban families live outside high-poverty neighborhoods, but last 25 years this has increased. Children living outside inner cities, neighborhood conditions less consequential than conditions within the family. Neighborhoods matter most when other risk factors are present, such as family poverty or mental health problems within families. Experimental evidence suggest that moving from highpoverty to low-poverty neighborhoods enhances the physical and psychological health of children and reduces violent crimes committed by adolescents. How Neighborhoods Affect Child Development Impact of Neighborhoods on Child & Adolescent Development (Based on University of Pittsburg and Institute of Medicine Readings) William Julius Wilson's study of Chicago neighborhoods examined high-poverty, inner-city Chicago neighborhoods where poor employment prospects, poor marriage pool, violence, and high mobility were endemic to these neighborhoods. The concentration of poverty along with the residential mobility of more advantaged African Americans left neighborhoods with neither resources nor positive role models for the children and adolescents who live in them. In general, the effects of a neighborhood are most often associated with the socioeconomic status (SES) of its residents. Biopsychosocial aspects of development: Cognitive & School Outcomes For lowbirth weight, premature infants in the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) no neighborhood effects were seen until children turned three years old. After that, living in a high-SES neighborhood tended to have a positive effect on children's IQ scores. Young children whose caregivers provide ample verbal and cognitive stimulation, who are sensitive and responsive, and who give them generous amounts of attention and support are more advanced in all realms of development compared with children who fail to receive these inputs. Living among high-SES neighbors is consistently found to be associated with children being better prepared to enter school and with positive school achievement. In Chicago's Gautreaux Project, children of the low-income families who were moved from public housing to the more affluent suburbs were more likely to stay in school, enroll in college preparatory classes, and to go on to college than their peers who remained in the city. Behavioral and Emotional Problems Aggression: Living among neighbors of low SES is associated with poorer mental health of children and adolescents, more so for externalizing behaviors, such as acting out and aggression, than for than internalizing behaviors, such as depression and withdrawal. Exposure to high levels of violence In disadvantaged neighborhoods, children are at greater risk of being exposed to violence, which can affect their physical and mental health, e.g. psychiatric problems ranging from posttraumatic stress and aggression to externalizing behavioral disorders are more common among children and youth who witness violence. Sexuality & Teen Pregnancy: Having ample neighborhood resources is associated with lower risk of childbearing among unmarried women. The timing of first intercourse and the risk of premarital sexual activity is lower when adolescent females are employed, which may be because teens who work receive more adult monitoring and supervision. Health Children living in poor neighborhoods are likely to have more emergency room visits and fewer doctor visits than children in affluent neighborhoods. Clearly, improving socioeconomic status of the family is one of the main targets of intervention and has been the focus of community work over the few decades. However, there clearly are other factors that we must consider when looking at strengths and needs of communities. Two of the most important concepts that have received a great deal of attention lately are: Social Capital and Collective Efficacy. Neighborhood Empowerment Kirst-Ashman, Chapter 10 Defining Neighborhoods Community of place within a larger community where residents share certain characteristics, values, mutual interests, or styles of living. Based on a physical area Provide places for people to reside and go about their daily living tasks Share something in common, such as religious affiliation, racial identity, socioeconomic status or concerns about encroaching crime. Defining Neighborhoods Types based on size Immediate limited number of family nits and lodging located in a small area, could be three blocks Extended larger than immediate might include several square blocks. Community 30 square blocks or more Boundaries Common characteristics, values, interests, or lifestyles. Functions of Neighborhoods: Promoting Optimal Health and Well-Being Neighborhoods perform a variety of functions: Arena for social interaction Provision of mutual aid Arena for people to communicate and share information Allow people to assert their social status though the choice of a physical neighborhood Organizational and political base Qualities of Strong Neighborhoods 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. A good school system Good, safe arenas for children Effective management of children's behaviors Health care facilities Transportation Daycare Support network of families and adults to watch children, support, positive role models Low crime, environmental dangers, racial conflict. Describing Neighborhood Structure Interpersonal Interaction Integral High Parochial High Diffuse Low Stepping-Stone Low Transitory Low Anomic Low Identification with Neighborhood High High High High Low Low Social Connectedness High Low Low High High Low Describing Neighborhood Structure Approach One: Interpersonal Interaction, Identification, and Connections Interpersonal Interaction among the residents of the neighborhood, to what extent to they socialize with each other and prove each other with support? Identification with the neighborhood and with each other, to what extent to they feel a part of their neighborhood? Connections neighborhood's connections with the larger encompassing community how neighborhoods have varying degrees of access to politicians who wield power, resources, needed services, and other systems in the large community. Describing Neighborhood Structure Approach Two: Neighborhood Groups and Value Implementation Structure and connections of formal and informal groups in neighborhoods and how these groups implement the neighborhood's primary values Formal and informal groups in neighborhoods can play a significant role in the attainment of individual and social goals in American society. Neighborhoods, Ethnicity and Social Class Strengths of Ethnic and Cultural Solidarity Solidarity communities: composed of people in the same racial or ethnic group, who share history, culture, language, or religion To build organizations, organizers promote the art, social events, and stories that relate shared historic sufferings of the group to its current members. Neighborhoods, Ethnicity and Social Class Social Class Proportions of homes owned and the quality of those homes usually reflect this. Higher social status implies greater access to resources. Segregation Separation or isolation of a group through social sanctions, laws, peer pressure, or personal preference Processes of Change in Neighborhoods The Invasion-Succession Model Conflict occurs when new groups of people reflecting certain racial, cultural, or religious characteristics move into areas already inhabited by people with different characteristics. Invasion the tendency of each new group to force existing ones out Succession the replacement of the original occupants of a community or neighborhood by new groups Processes of Change in Neighborhoods The Life Cycle Model Views neighborhood change as a decline, predictable phases from birth until death: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A stable and viable neighborhood A minor decline A clear decline A heavily deteriorated neighborhood An unhealthy and nonviable neighborhood Processes of Change in Neighborhoods The Political Capacity Model Perceives a neighborhood as having the ability to pass through various stages as it develops it's political viability and power. Focus on growth rather than deterioration Neighborhoods are disorganized and lacking in leadership initially, someone must function as leader Neighborhood Centers, Empowerment, and the Promotion of Health and WellBeing Neighborhood center is a community-based agency that advocates for community residents and works with them to provide a wide array of services meeting their needs. Settlement Houses: A Response to Changing Social and Economic Forces 1. 2. 3. Industrialization Urbanization Explosive immigration Neighborhood Centers, Empowerment, and the Promotion of Health and WellBeing Settlement Houses and Generalist Social Work Practice Addressed the problems of people in an environmental context instead of focusing on individual pathology. An environmental focus led naturally to an emphasis on advocacy and social reform. Emphasized the empowerment of people Neighborhood Centers, Empowerment, and the Promotion of Health and WellBeing Neighborhood Centers Today Four assumptions Community Neighborhood Residents Are Key Factors Emphasis on Community Neighborhood Assets Neighborhood Centers Can Help Neighborhoods Work Together Linkage Among Neighborhood Units Examples of Neighborhood and community Projects: Resident Empowerment, page 305 ...
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