JSPN Vol. 11, No. 4, October, 2006
Accepted for publication April 5, 2006
Blackwel Publishing Inc
Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing
© 20 5 by Nursecom, Inc.
July 20 6
Recruitment and Retention of Latino Adolescents to a Research Study
Recruitment and Retention of Latino Adolescents
to a Research Study: Lessons Learned from
a Randomized Clinical Trial
Antonia M. Villarruel, Loretta S. Jemmott, John B. Jemmott, and Brenda L. Eakin
To describe facilitators and barriers to
participation and retention of Latino adolescents
in a randomized clinical trial.
DESIGN AND METHODS.
Participants were part
of a randomized clinical trial designed to reduce
HIV sexual risk behavior among Latino youth.
Responses from 106 randomly selected respondents
from the 3-month follow-up were content analyzed.
Four main facilitator patterns emerged:
peer/family support, program incentives,
commitment, and desire to help. Participation
barriers included conflicts with other commitments,
embarrassment, and lack of peer support.
retention of Latino adolescents in research
studies is critical to building a research base
for nursing practice.
HIV prevention, Latino
adolescents, nursing, randomized controlled
trial, recruitment, retention
Antonia M. Villarruel, PhD, FAAN, is Profesor, University
of Michigan, School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI; Loretta S.
Jemmott, PhD, FAAN, is Professor, University of
Pennsylvania, School of Nursing, Philadelphia, PA; John B.
Jemmott, III, PhD, is Professor, University of Pennsylvania,
Annenberg School for Communications, Philadelphia, PA;
and Brenda L. Eakin, MS, is Research Specialist, University
of Michigan, School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI.
Ac epted for publication April 5, 2006
ecruitment of adequate numbers of research
participants requires significant effort (Lamb, Puskar,
number of participants prolongs the time required
for the study, threatens internal and external validity,
reduces statistical power, and drains scarce research
resources (Davis, Broome, & Cox, 2002). Specific popu-
lations may require targeted efforts to ensure adequate
representation in clinical trials. In this paper, we describe
facilitators and barriers to participation and retention
of Latino adolescents in a randomized clinical trial.
Specific factors have been identified that affect the
recruitment of minority adolescents into research studies
(Levkoff, Prohaska, Weitzman, & Ory, 2000); however,
limited research is available concerning the retention of
adolescent participants in randomized clinical trials.
Retention has been associated with a variety of factors