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Reasoning

Reasoning - Hist 50 Historical Process Iris M Jerke...

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Hist 50 Historical Process Iris M. Jerke Reasoning: – Facts, Inferences, Judgments – Premises & Conclusion A fact is information that is verifiable, or can be “proven” to be true. How do we verify it? We observe it for ourselves by - looking out the window to see if it’s raining - touching a snake to see that it’s not slimy - tasting the soup to find out if it is salty Or we trust other people to tell us facts - a friend who says the class has been canceled - a newspaper reporter who describes an earthquake in Japan - a book author who describes civil rights protests of the 1950s and 1960s To believe something to be a fact requires that we trust our senses – our eyes, ears, etc. - or that we trust our source – the friend, the reporter, the author. Fact : “We’ve had a quiz almost every day there was reading due.” Reasoning … Is the process of coming to a conclusion (belief, opinion, prediction, explanation) about something by using information that we do know. “We’ve had a quiz almost every day there was reading due. More reading is due tomorrow, so we will probably have a quiz.” An Inference … is another word for that conclusion arrived at through reasoning (the verb is to infer ). Inference: “We will probably have a quiz tomorrow.” Information we do have , known as evidence , is used to arrive at that conclusion or inference. Because we have had a quiz almost every day there was reading due, you may infer that there will probably be a quiz tomorrow. Note: the difference between infer and imply: We infer when we arrive at a conclusion about something or someone from what we heard, saw , read etc. “The class may infer from what the professor said that there will be a quiz tomorrow.” We imply when we suggest or hint at something to someone else. “The professor implied to the class that there will be a quiz tomorrow.” A Judgment … - 1 -

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Hist 50 Historical Process Iris M. Jerke is an evaluative inference “The professor likes given quizzes” Reasoning, or making inferences and/or judgments, requires information/evidence that we call Premises… . Statements that are used to lead to a conclusion (inference). Often these are statements of fact ; sometimes they are inferences/conclusions we have made about something else. Either way, these premises are used to support a conclusion. They use the information/evidence that is available to express the reasons why the conclusion is made.
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Reasoning - Hist 50 Historical Process Iris M Jerke...

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