4 - THEORIES -HANDOUT - SW 175 Social Work Theories...

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SW 175: Social Work Theories Theories offer explanations for why a problem occurs and also offer ways to address those problems. A theory is a formal, logical explanation for why something happens – it provides explanations for relationships – e.g. social learning theory A conceptual framework is a more loose set of ideas that tells us how we might approach a problem, i.e. what variables might be important to look at – e.g. ecological approach, or the bio-psychosocial approach Ecological Approach – Bronfenbrenner Understanding of human behavior: Individual development and behavior are influenced by a variety of factors in their environment. The environment is conceived as a nested arrangement of concentric structures, each contained within the next. The structures are referred to as: Micro, Meso, and Macro systems The person and the environment mutually influence each other and respond to each other to achieve the best possible match or goodness-of-fit. Understanding the nature of problems: Problems in functioning arise due to a mismatch between individual needs and coping capacities with environmental resources and support. Examine the nature of relationships between different systems, and the transactions between the person and environment by assessing all levels of systems affecting a client's adaptiveness. Ways to address problems: Enhance a client's personal competence through positive relationships and life experiences. Interventions that affect the goodness of fit between a client and environment at all systems levels. Biological & Psychological Approaches to Psychological Problems http://www.learner.org/discoveringpsychology/therapeutic/index.html Biological Approaches target the "hardware," the body's mechanisms that control the central nervous system, endocrine system, and metabolism. Assumes that many psychological disorders stem from underlying biological causes, such as structural abnormalities in the brain, biochemical processes, and genetics. Biological Treatments attempt to alter brain functioning with chemical or physical interventions, including drugs that act directly on the brain and body, surgery, and electroconvulsive therapy. Conducted by psychiatrists, physicians, and surgeons, biological treatments, also known as biomedical therapies, include the following practices. Psychopharmacology
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course SCWK 175 at San Jose State.

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4 - THEORIES -HANDOUT - SW 175 Social Work Theories...

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