English_1B_Summary_Sheet

English_1B_Summary_Sheet - know you care about the planet...

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English 1B Summary Sheet The Three Appeals: Basic categories from classical Greek Rhetoric Logos : appeals to the audience’s rational mind; evidence; interpretations of the evidence. Example : “Reyes, who earns the equivalent of $35 a week, says her bosses blame the long hours and low wages on big U.S. companies and their demands for ever-cheaper merchandise.” (from Global Issues Local Arguments . P. 21) Pathos: appeals to the audience’s values, emotions, beliefs. Example : Most Americans want to believe their country is a force for good in the world, but then most Americans don’t realize that they support sweatshops with almost every dollar they spend on clothing. Ethos: appeals designed to establish the writer’s credibility: to show good sense, good morals, and good will toward the audience. Example: Based on my 20 years of experience in this field, as well as my careful research of this particular issue, I can assure you that global climate change is a valid concern—a crisis, in fact. (ethos/good sense) I
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Unformatted text preview: know you care about the planet you will leave for your children (pathos/good will), so I hope you will follow my example and trade your SUV’s for Smart Cars. (pathos/good morals). Obviously, these appeals work together. You need to present a good logos appeal to demonstrate “good sense”; your pathos appeal helps demonstrate your “good morals,” and even “objective” data in a logos appeal can have an emotional impact (pathos). The Modes : These are different ways of developing your ideas, and each has particular strengths and weaknesses. A good writer knows how to use each to advantage and how to combine them. When analyzing others’ arguments, you should look at how they are operating and think about what else might have been used. Description Narration Definition Evaluation Proposal Process Exemplification (using examples) Refutation Compare/contrast Classification/division Cause/effect...
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