7 depression anxiety psychosis

7 depression anxiety psychosis - 1 Graduate Training Course...

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1 Graduate Training Course on Social Work II: Social Work for Children and Youth with Special Needs Class 7. 01.08.09: Depression, Anxiety and Psychosis in Children I. Depression A. What is depression? 1. Depression is categorized as a “mood disorder.” Depression looks very similar in children and adolescents as it does in adults. Current estimates are that 9.5% of children have had depression at some point by the age of 16 (more girls than boys). It is characterized by problems with feeling sad and tired all of the time, low self esteem, more so than sadness as a normal response to events in one’s life. Sometimes the child cries for long periods. Children cannot take pleasure in their normal activities. Family members feel that talking to the child does not seem to help. In severe cases the child may be unable to communicate, and there may be a risk of suicide. (There are other mood disorders as well. We will focus mainly on depression since it the most common type. ) 2. There are many factors that can lead to depression: a) Biochemical changes b) Post-traumatic stress reactions c) Family disruption or conflict that does not improve over time d) Some physical illnesses are associated with depression (such as diabetes—there is a high percentage of people with diabetes who also suffer from depression) e) Some medicines can cause depression (such as some types of chemotherapy for cancer, and certain anti-convulsant drugs) f) A family history of depression is associated with the child’s depression. However, we do not yet know whether depression can be genetically transmitted. B. Criteria for diagnosis -- the most typical diagnosis of “Major Depressive Episode” has the following criteria: 1. At least five of the following symptoms present during a continuous 2- week period (criteria 1 and 2 must be present): a) Depressed or irritable mood most of the day. Child may be easily frustrated. ***Questions for class discussion or thinking between classes.
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2 b) Noticeably less interest or pleasure in all or most activities c) Significant weight loss (not due to dieting), or weight gain d) Insomnia (difficulty falling asleep), or too much sleeping during the day e) Physical slowness (children may instead complain of physical pain or symptoms that do not have a medical explanation) f) Fatigue g) Feeling worthless, self-blaming, or unreasonable guilt h) Poor concentration and ability to focus; children might not be able to pay attention in school i) Recurrent thoughts of death (more than a normal fear of death); may also include thoughts of suicide 2. For all depressed children and adolescents, it is very important to assess the risk of danger, since most suicides are due to depression. Someone is a current danger to themselves if, a) There is a desire to die, and b) There are some ideas about how the child would kill him/herself (such as taking pills), and c) The means to do it are available to the child (availability of dangerous pills), and d) There is inadequate supervision to ensure that the child does not
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7 depression anxiety psychosis - 1 Graduate Training Course...

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