religious_values - JouinaJ of Family Psychology 2001, Vol....

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JouinaJ of Family Psychology 2001, Vol. 15, No. 4, 627-645 Copyright 2001 by the American Psychological Association, Inc. O893-32OO/O1/S5.OO DOI: 10.1037//0893-3200.15.4.627 Transmission and Transaction: Predicting Adolescents' Internalization of Parental Religious Values Douglas L. Flor and Nancy Flanagan Knapp University of Georgia Data in this study supported a model of internalization that included both trans- mission and transactional variables. Two sets of hierarchical linear regression models were conducted on data collected from the fathers, mothers, and adolescents (10 to 12 years old) in 171 intact Caucasian families. One set predicted adolescent religious behavior, the other predicted the importance of religion to child. Trans- mission variables (parental religious behavior and parental desire for child to be religious) predicted the most variance in all models. Dyadic discussions of faith (transactional) predicted significant variance in all models. Child gender had a direct effect only on adolescent religious behavior. A significant 3-way interaction occurred between child gender, parental desire for child to be religious, and dyadic discussions when predicting importance of religion to child, with child and parent gender dyads interacting in a complex manner. A wise son maketh a glad father; but a foolish son is the heaviness of his mother. Proverbs 10:1 (American Standard Version) The question of whether and how parents can "pass on" their most deeply held values to their children has been of vital interest to parents themselves and to society in general from early Biblical times through today. By virtue of their roles, parents are the primary socializing agents for their children. Internalization, the socializa- tion process by which children come to learn, value, and acquire the beliefs and behaviors of their parents, has been empirically studied for many years from various developmental and nondevelopmental perspectives (Baldwin, 1911; Bandura & Walters, 1959, 1963; De- Douglas L. Flor, Institute for Behavioral Research, University of Georgia; Nancy Flanagan Knapp, De- partment of Educational Psychology, University of Georgia. The research reported in this article was supported by Grant AA09224 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Douglas L. Flor, who is now at Elec- tronic Data Systems, 180 Mclntosh Estates Drive, Sharpsburg, Georgia 30277. Electronic mail may be sent to Charms, 1968; Freud, 1957; Janet, 1930;Piaget, 1970; Schafer, 1968; Vygotsky, 1987). For most of this time, two main groups of theories have dominated the discussion (Law- rence & Valsiner, 1993). In the more traditional cultural transmission model, values are passed from the parent to the child unidirectionally. The child is seen as a passive recipient, accept- ing or not accepting the values transmitted by parents who are perceived as the active agents in the internalization process. The alternative transactional, sometimes called transforma- tional (Lawrence & Valsiner, 1993), models of internalization are drawn from more construc-
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religious_values - JouinaJ of Family Psychology 2001, Vol....

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