pharmacology - Psychopharmacology Therapeutic vs. toxic...

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1 Psychopharmacology Therapeutic vs. toxic dosage levels Side effects Adverse effects Interactions Use with the elderly, during Use during pregnancy Patient teaching nonpsychopharmacological interventions
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2 Neuroscience Nervous system Limbic system – emotional control, memory, & learning Hypothalamus – releasing hormones ->affect human behavior Basic unit – Neuron Neurotransmitter
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3 Neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter - combine with a specific receptor; Relay a chemical message to the receptor cell Drugs act on neurotransmitters Agonist – activating cell function; to accelerate or slow cellular processes Antagonist – prevent natural or other substances from activating cell function Affinity – binding between drug and receptor Refractoriness - desensitization of cells to a drug over time
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4 Neurotransmitters and Related Mental Disorders Dopamine Norepinephrine Serotonin Acetylcholine Gamma- aminobutyric acid (GABA) Schizophrenia Depression Depression Alzheimer’s disease Anxiety
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5 Pharmacokinetics - Absorption PO, IV, IM,…- Absorption qid, tid, bid, … - drug level in the blood Individual condition - sex - female: fat  age - older:  health - congestive heart failure, GI, Others - exercise
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6 Pharmacokinetics - Distribution Target tissue Cardiac output - electric imbalance, CHF, chr pulmonary dis Serum protein binding Half-life of the drug Pregnancy
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7 Pharmacokinetics - Metabolism Break down or metabolize into other compound - liver convert into other active substance – liver
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8 Pharmacokinetics - Excretion Proper excretion = less toxicity Kidney - main excretion organ Others - GI, skin, lungs, sweat glands Tissue perfusion rate - shock,  hemorrhage Diseases - renal, liver . .. Urinary pH - acidic urine -amphetamine                     alkaline urine- barbiturates 
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9 Phases of Treatment Initiation Stabilization Maintenance Medication-free
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10 Nursing Responsibilities Monitor for common, expected or worrisome side effects of medications Preventing adverse drug reactions Evaluate compliance Judge the appropriateness of the regimen Recommend needed changes Provide pt & family education
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11 Patient Education Compliance - effectiveness, symptom control Side-effect - inevitable, unpleasant, temporary; only a few are life threatening Education - encourages compliance; Medications are not magic bullet Balance with information - too much or inappropriate Regular checkups and test
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12 Classes of psychotropic medication Antipsychotic medications Antidepressant medications Mood-stabilizing drugs Anti-anxiety medications Psychostimulants
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13 Antipsychotics - typical 1950 - Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course NURS 127A at San Jose State University .

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pharmacology - Psychopharmacology Therapeutic vs. toxic...

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