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Unformatted text preview: Learning I. Individual Focus (Micro issues) Positivist Approach/ Paradigm Objective: Prediction Hypothesis Testing II. Social Focus (Macro issues) Interpretivist Approach/Paradigm Objective understanding Observational Methods What are the customs in a given society? *Thought Question : If you were in charge of introducing a new brand, how would you use learning techniques to attract consumers attention to your product? Consumer Learning I. Steps for Classical Conditioning 1. Find a conditioned stimulus (CS) that does not elicit the reflex responses. a. The sound of the bell did not cause salivation. 2. Find an unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits an innate unconditioned response (UR). a. Meat powder causes salivation 3. Pair the CS with the US repeatedly a. Blowing powder with bell continuously 4. The previously neutral CS now elicits a CR a. Sound of bell made dog salivate Dos and Donts for successful CC 1. Do not overshadow the unconditioned stimulus with distracting items. 2. Choose an unconditioned stimulus that does not have previous associations to other brands or product categories. 3. For greatest effectiveness, use classical conditioning when the conditioned stimulus is new. II. Steps for Instrumental Conditioning Presentation of Stimulus Behavior Reward/Punishment Increase or decrease in prob. of behavior Keyword: REINFORCEMENT Threats to Instrumental Conditioning: Dos and Donts Changes in reward/punishment Forgetting Desires for new rewards/punishment III. Vicarious Learning Individuals change their behavior as a result of observing the behaviors of others . We imitate behaviors that appear to have positive consequences, and avoid those that have negative. IV. Cognitive Learning Individuals do not respond simply to stimuli. They act on beliefs, express attitudes, and strive toward goals This Theory emphasizes the thought process involved in learning. Key Word: PROBLEM SOLVING Steps in Cognitive Learning Goal Purposive Behavior Insight Goal Achievement Memory *Thought Question : How does memory work? What tactics can be used to make more memorable and/or effective ad? I. Memory Process: See Notes II. Factors that influence and trigger memory Problems with retrieval of memory: 1. Forgetting list info 2. Interference, blocked info across links 3. Extinction, change in links- when related info blocks relevant info.- Remembering things at the beginning is called the primary effect ....
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course BUS 134B at San Jose State University .