BUS160 Study Guide - Ch1 Foundations of O.B Four Management...

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Ch1. Foundations of O.B. Four Management functions: Plan, Control, Organize, Lead - Plan: A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities. - Organize: Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. - Lead: A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts. It’s about PEOPLE. - Control: Monitoring performance, comparing actual performance with previously set goals, and correcting any deviation. Katz’s Essential Management Skills - Technical Skills: The abilito to apply specialized knowledge or expertise - Human Skills: The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. - Conceptual Skills: The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations How Managers spend their time: Successful vs. effective - Successful: Spend most of their time networking and in communications - Effective: Spend most of their time in Communications Levels of Analysis - Individual level Group level Organization systems level Ch2. Individual Behavior Classical Conditioning - Pavlov’s Dog Drool Example - Key Concepts: Unconditioned stimulus & Unconditioned Response—Conditioned Stimilus & Conditioned response - This is a passive form of learning. It is reflexive and not voluntary Operant Conditioning - B.F. Skinner’s concept of Behaviorism: behavior follows stimuli in a relatively unthinking manner. - Key Concepts: Conditioned behavior—Reinforcement—Pleasing consequences increase likelihood of repetition— Rewards are most effective immediately after performance—Unrewarded/punished behavior is unlikely to be repeated. Social Learning - Based on the idea that people can also learn indirectly: by observation, reading, or just hearing about someone else’s - Key Concepts: Attentional processes—Retention process—Motor reproduction processes—Reinforcement processes. Biographical characteristics that lead to behavioral outcomes in organizations - Objective and easily obtained personal characteristics - Age, Gender, Race, Tenure, Religion, Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity. Shapping Behavior - Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. - Four Methods of Shaping Behavior: Positive reinforcement—Negative reinforcement—Punishment—Extinction Ch3. Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Attitudes Cognitive Dissonance - Any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Job Attitudes and their outcomes - Job Satisfaction: A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics - Job Involvement: Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth -
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