Malnutrition-Lecture[2] - Feb08

Malnutrition-Lecture[2] - Feb08 - Malnutrition Malnutrition...

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Malnutrition
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Malnutrition Malnutrition results from imbalance between the body's needs and the intake of nutrients. It can lead to syndromes of deficiency, dependency, toxicity, or obesity. It is caused by: -underconsumption -overconsumption
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Four Types of Malnutrition Overnutrition Secondary Malnutrition Dietary Deficiency or Micronutrient Malnutrition Protein-Calorie Malnutrition
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Overnutrition Overnutrition can result from: overeating; insufficient exercise overprescription of therapeutic diets, including parenteral nutrition excess intake of vitamins excess intake of trace minerals.
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Undernutrition Undernutrition can result from: inadequate intake; malabsorption; abnormal systemic loss of nutrients due to diarrhea, hemorrhage, renal failure, or excessive sweating; infection; or addiction to drugs.
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Secondary malnutrition Secondary malnutrition occurs when a person has a condition or illness that prevents proper digestion or absorption of food.
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Common causes of 2 º malnutrition Diarrhea Respiratory illness Measles Loss of appetite (anorexia). Alteration of normal metabolism. Prevention of nutrient absorption. Diversion of nutrients to the parasitic agents themselves.
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Dietary Deficiency or Micronutrient Malnutrition A diet lacking in one or more essential micronutrients such as a vitamin or a mineral results in dietary deficiency. Vitamins and minerals are only required in very small amounts, but a diet insufficient in these can cause severe deficiency diseases. With the exception of iron deficiency anemia, vitamin and mineral deficiencies are extremely rare in developed countries
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Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) leading cause of preventable blindness in children and raises the risk of disease and death from severe infections. In pregnant women VAD causes night blindness (xeropthalmia) and may increase the risk of maternal mortality May mean elevated risk of HIV transmission from mother to child
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Interventions Breastfeeding. Vitamin A supplementation. Food fortification. Home gardens Food fortification (i.e. sugar in Guatemala) Genetically Modified Food: Golden Rice
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Iodine deficiency (IDD) The single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world . Only a teaspoon required in a lifetime! Globally, 2.2 billion people (38% of the world's population) live in areas with iodine deficiency and risks its complications 50 million children suffer from varying degrees of Iodine Deficiency Disorders.
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Woman with Goiter
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Causes On Individuals: goiter, hypothyroidism, loss of energy. In Pregnant Mothers: miscarriages, stillbirths and mentally retarded children. In Children: impaired mental and physical
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course NUFS 139 at San Jose State.

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Malnutrition-Lecture[2] - Feb08 - Malnutrition Malnutrition...

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