Lecture 1 s 10 basics

Lecture 1 s 10 basics - ARGUMENT STRUCTURE Logic is the...

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ARGUMENT STRUCTURE Logic is the study of arguments. An argument is a sequence of statements – - one is the conclusion to the others - all the others are premises . The premises provide evidence for the conclusion.
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EXAMPLES All humans are mortal. Jennifer Lopez is human. Jennifer Lopez is mortal. Sarah was not at the party. It couldn’t have been Sarah Jack was dancing with.
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FORMAL vs INFORMAL LOGIC Formal logic the study of argument forms abstract patterns common to many different arguments. valid invalid If P, then Q If P, then Q P Q Q P P and Q stand for any propositions. Informal logic – the study of particular arguments in natural language
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PREMISES Premises and conclusions are always propositions (statements) – they can be true or false. They are not questions, commands or exclamations. 5FTU : “It is true/not true that P where P = a premise or a conclusion
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EXAMPLE It is true that Sarah was not at the party . * It is true that Where is Sarah ? * It is true that Don’t you dare do that again ! Note: « * » indicates that a statement is unacceptable
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NOTE 1 At issue is the form of the statement, whether it CAN be true or false, not whether it IS true or false. These are PROPOSITIONS: Snow is green. I am Jennifer Lopez. These are NOT: * What color is snow? * Hey, look, there’s JLo!
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NOTE 2 Although the premises, by definition, provide evidence for the conclusion, this evidence may be good or not. You have to let me go to the party, everyone is going to be there.
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NOTE 3 In standard form the conclusion appears at the end . In practice, the conclusion may appear anywhere . Jack could not have been the murderer. The victim was shot from 40 feet away. Jack is a blind and paralyzed from the neck down. EXERCISE : Identify premises and conclusions of arguments.
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CONCLUSION INDICATORS Inference indicators - indicate the role of a proposition in an argument. Conclusion indicators
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Lecture 1 s 10 basics - ARGUMENT STRUCTURE Logic is the...

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