All undergraduate students should have three things on their desks:
collegiate dictionary, a very thick Roget’s Thesaurus
, and a well-regarded style manual.
Two highly recommended style manuals are Diana Hacker’s A Writer’s Reference
Kate Turabian’s A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations
students, however, need prodding when it comes to the technical aspects of writing, thus,
the birth of this abbreviated version, the “Enchiridion.”
Enchiridion comes from the
Greek word, encheiridion
, that is, en
for “in” + cheir
for “hand,” meaning “in hand,” or
Please make sure that this “Enchiridion” is “in hand” when you are writing for
Yes, grammar, style and mechanics do matter.
There are five sections to the “Enchiridion”: Chicago citation method, seven
common footnote styles, seven common bibliographic entry styles, six common
syntactical errors and nine common mechanical errors.
There is a great deal more to be
said about each of these subjects.
In this manual, however, the information provided
pertains to common citations and common errors in typical undergraduate work.
have other more complicated cases or questions about any of these points, consult the
Chicago Citation Method
The citation method used in history and the humanities is called the Chicago
The Chicago Manual of Style
, published by the University of Chicago Press, is in
Both Hacker and Turabian use The Chicago Manual of Style
as the basis
for their own manuals.
The information below is from the 14
edition of “The Chicago.”
Citation in the Text
The footnote number, which is always Arabic numeral, is superscripted after the
period or the final quotation marks in a footnote.
He went to the site of the disaster immediately.
“The president called the vice-president at 3:05 p.m.”
Format of the Note
The note either appears at the bottom of the page or at the end of the document.
Individual notes are single-spaced and the first line is indented five spaces from
the left margin.
Double space separate entries.
Peter Bourchard, The Gallant Rush: Robert Gould Shaw and His Brave
(New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1965, 85.
Robert Service, A History of Twentieth-Century Russia
Cambridge University Press, 1998), 314-15.