ScientificMethodPseudoscience

ScientificMethodPseudoscience - Scientific Methods...

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Scientific Methods
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Scientific Method: What is it? A process of acquiring scientific knowledge. It is a logical, objective and orderly way to formulate and test theories.
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After an observation : you form a hypothesis (a testable statement) you design a study you choose subjects you carry out the study you analyze the study you make conclusions you re-test
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Hypothesis Proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations Based on prior observations A statement (an educated guess) It must be reasonable It is not a question It must be testable!! -Specific -it implies a link between observations and outcome.
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Observation vs. Intervention Observational Studies Surveys Case reports Reports of treatments/outcome Reports of procedures/outcome Description of population (Diets/Disease relationships) Conclusions? Relationships only Associations Correlations No cause and effect relation
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Intervention studies Comparison of an outcome between 2 groups of people deliberately subjected to different dietary or drug regimens Compare treatment group with control group Placebo treatment is needed If intervention study If similar experimental and control group subjects If a temporal association is shown If random assignment to groups is done Then cause and effect relationships may be concluded.
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Retrospective vs. Prospective Used to find cause/effect Retro-spective = looking back People with disease – find clues for cause Habits Foods
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Pro-spective = look ahead Find experimental group – look at 1 characteristic Match subject’s characteristic Wait to see disease develop Compare subjects
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Cross-sectional vs. Longitudnal Cross-sectional Choose subjects and assess 1 time Pick variable to assess Value
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Longitudnal (Cohort Study) Choose subjects and assess same variable many times Slow, drop outs! Framingham study
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ScientificMethodPseudoscience - Scientific Methods...

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