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Bus161A - Exam 3 Notes

Bus161A - Exam 3 Notes - Chapter 12 Basic Approaches to...

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Chapter 12 – Basic Approaches to Leadership I. What is leadership? A. Leadership – the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals (inspirational, charismatic, get followers to listen) B. Management – use of authority inherent formal rank to obtain fulfillment from organization members (make leader’s vision possible through authority) II. Trait Theories A. Trait Theories of Leadership : theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders 1. Extraversion (outgoing) 2. Conscientiousness (wishing to do what is right) 3. Openness 4. Emotional Intelligence Identify leaders in the beginning by their traits, predictable B. Limitations : no universal trait that predict leadership in all situations 1. Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship between leadership and traits 2. Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders C. Trait Approach : assumption that leaders are born 1. Goals is to select leaders 2. Traits do not generalize across situations (better at predicting leadership emergence than leader effectiveness) III. Behavioral Theories A. Behavior theories of leadership : theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders 1. Behavior Theory – leadership behaviors can be taught 2. Trait Theory – leaders are born, not made B. Behavioral Approach : leaders can be trained 1. Goal is to develop leaders 2. Problem is that effective behaviors do not generalize across situations C. Ohio State Studies 1. Initiating Structure – the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his/her role and those subordinates in the search for goal attainment
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2. Consideration – the extent to which a leader is likely to have a job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for subordinate’s ideas, and regard for feelings D. University of Michigan Studies 1. Employee-Oriented Leader – emphasizing interpersonal relationships (taking personal interest in the needs to employees and accepting individual differences among members) 2. Production-Oriented Leaders – one who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job E. The Leadership (Managerial) Grid by Blake and Mouton IV. Contingency Theories A. Fiedler Model – leadership style is fixed. Leader must fit situation or change situation to fit leader 1. Leader-member relations (how socialable) - Confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader 2. Task structure (how structure) - Degree job assignments are procedurized 3. Position Power (how much power) - Influence derived from structural position. Power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and salary increase Leader’s style can be measured by the least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire LPC – the way in which a leader will evaluate a co-worker who is not liked will indicate whether the leader is task or relationship oriented B.
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Bus161A - Exam 3 Notes - Chapter 12 Basic Approaches to...

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