Kellogg_c10 - Decision Making Kellogg (Chapter 10)...

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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 10) Decision Making Kellogg (Chapter 10)
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 10) Decision Making and Problem Solving Algorithm : precise set of rules guaranteed to produce the correct answer Heuristic : rule of thumb, and informal strategy or approach that works under some circumstances (not all)
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 10) FORMAL LOGIC Induction – the process of reasoning from the particular to the general Deduction – the process of drawing, by reasoning, particular conclusion from more general principles assumed to be true • Francis Bacon proposed logical induction as the logic of scientific discovery and deduction as the logic of argumentation. – In fact, both processes are used synergistically in the behavioral sciences: by observation of particular events (induction) and from already known principles (deduction).
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 10) Syllogisms three statement logical form Major Premise Minor Premise Conclusion The logical validity of the conclusion is determined entirely after 'accepting' the premises as true (it is a logical deductive conclusion that is a conclusion that necessarily follows from the premises) All bears are animals Some animals are white Thus, some bears are white (Invalid conclusion) Syllogistic reasoning is highly subject to the confirmation bias; you can guard against this – (1) through the use of Euler Circles ( Venn diagrams ) while – (2) trying to falsify the conclusion.
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 10) Euler Circles (I will likely refer to these as Venn Diagrams )
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 10) Syllogisms • Major and Minor Premises – “All” – “Some” – “None” • People do poorly with syllogisms, even when the content is “meaningless” letters.
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 10) Cognitive Constraints (Syllogistic Reasoning) • Atmosphere Hypothesis “All, Some Æ incorrect assume syllogism is valid” • Illicit Conversion (all A are B does NOT mean all B are A, but people tend to perform this “illicit conversion”) • Belief Bias : meaningful information can lead to accepting invalid conclusions
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 10) Conditional Reasoning two major parts: conditional clause (if-then) evidence • Determine whether the evidence supports, refutes or is irrelevant to the stated relationship. – The "if" clause of the conditional is the antecedent
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course PSYC 135 at San Jose State University .

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Kellogg_c10 - Decision Making Kellogg (Chapter 10)...

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