Kellogg_c7 - Knowledge Representation Kellogg (Chapter 7)...

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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 7) Knowledge Representation Kellogg (Chapter 7)
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 7) Semantics • Semantics is the study of meaning. Any theory of Semantic memory must explain how people mentally represent concepts and ideas. • Semantic Memory stores knowledge of concepts and facts.
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 7) Categorization A Category is a kind of thing… The type of representation of knowledge in semantic memory has necessary implications for ‘categorization’ e.g., Make a List 12 Farm Animals (e.g., if the list was “jobs” you might include lawyer, doctor, professor, candlestick maker, …)
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 7) Categorization • Rate each item with regards to how “GOOD” the item is as an exemplar of a “FARM ANIMAL” 1 2 3 4 5 (good exemplar) (poor exemplar)
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 7) Bottom-Up Processing (data driven processing) Template matching : use of an exact match (goodness of fit test) to classify a new pattern – Bank number checking account number recognition – A template in the context of human pattern recognition refers to an internal construct that, when matched by sensory stimuli, leads to the recognition of an object. needs a set of templates against which to compare objects (all possible chairs) storage? the system will need to create (via experience) the entire set of templates against which to compare the stimulus. the templates will be very particular and need good alignment in order to identify machine vision is historically very bad at this This will be a very large problem for auditory processing. The " problem of invariance " is that humans are very good at picking out and understanding speech despite huge amounts of variability within and between speakers. Computerized voice recognition systems are only now beginning to be marginally reliable (with a restricted vocabulary and speaker training, etc.)
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 7) Bottom-Up Processing (data driven processing) Feature Analysis • Pandemonium [Selfridge] – Feature analysis model of bottom-up letter recogntion » Image demon » Feature demon » Letter demon » Decision demon • Hubel & Weisel » Orientation specific cells » Feature specific cells (page 141)
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 7) Structural Description Theory Recognition by Components [Biederman] • Break down visual objects into GEONS • People cannot identify objects which are missing their intersections • Number of basic features is relatively small
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 7) Paris in the the spring WELCOME TO IIIINOIS vs . WELCOME TO IIINOIS Top-Down Processing (Conceptually Driven Processing)
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Cognition Van Selst (Kellogg Chapter 7) RULE-GOVERNED CONCEPTS (Kellogg) • The classical view of categories, dating back at least to Aristotle, and showing up again and again in philosophy and psychology, is that categories are defined by a set of necessary and sufficient conditions.
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Kellogg_c7 - Knowledge Representation Kellogg (Chapter 7)...

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