LA 1 - January THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION 22, 2007 1775...

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T HE B ROOKINGS I NSTITUTION 1775 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20036-2103 Tel: 202-797-6000 Fax: 202-797-6004 www.brookings.edu January 22, 2007 ENDING OIL DEPENDENCE by David Sandalow David Sandalow is Energy and Environment Scholar at The Brookings Institution. He is writing a book on oil dependence.
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Plug-in hybrid engines, biofuels and other technologies can help end the United States’ oil dependence in a generation. Doing so would provide important national security, environmental and economic benefits. A broad political consensus and game-changing technological advances create the conditions for dramatic change. Yet bold leadership will be needed. There are no simple or short-term solutions. Solving the problems created by oil dependence will require a far-reaching transformation so that drivers can choose between oil, electricity and biofuels to move their vehicles. Working together, the President and Congress should: ± Transform the auto fleet, with federal purchases of plug-in hybrid vehicles, tax incentives for the purchase plug-in hybrids paid for with the federal gasoline tax, a fund to help automakers pay for retiree health care costs and invest in fuel-saving technologies, and automatic annual increases in fuel economy standards ± Transform the fuel supply, by requiring oil companies to retrofit gas station pumps for ethanol, increasing support for cellulosic ethanol, adjusting the ethanol subsidy as oil prices rise and fall, phasing out the ethanol import tariff for producers that meet social and environmental standards, and supporting lower prices for off-peak electricity ± Protect the climate with federal cap-and-trade legislation ± Invest in research on advanced energy technologies ± Transform oil diplomacy by focusing on fuel efficiency in consuming nations, not just on additional supply, and ± Establish an “Oil Addiction Index” to stimulate and track progress. Previous efforts to address oil dependence have failed for lack of ambition. The widespread focus on oil imports has obscured a more fundamental problem – the near- total reliance of our transportation sector on oil. Today several technologies offer the promise of disrupting oil’s deeply entrenched hold on the transportation fuels market, while lowering driving costs and improving environmental quality. Promoting the rapid adoption of these technologies should be a top national priority. To solve the problems created by oil dependence, drivers must have a choice between oil and other fuels.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS I. I NTRODUCTION ………….…. .……………………….……………………… 1 II. T HE O IL P ARADOX ……….….….…………………….……………………. .. 1 III. P ROBLEMS WITH O IL D EPENDENCE . ……………………. ...……………….… 3 A. National Security Threats ………………………………………………. . 3 B. Environmental Threats ……………………………………………….…. 5 C. Economic Threats ………………………………………………………. 6
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course CHEM 132 taught by Professor Broderick during the Spring '08 term at MSU Bozeman.

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LA 1 - January THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION 22, 2007 1775...

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