Exam_3_Book - CHAPTER 7 —— ATTITUDES& ATTITUDE...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 7 —— ATTITUDES & ATTITUDE CHANGE T. Attitudes & their origins At Attitudes formation: Why and how? 1. Why attitudes form 2. Cultural differences 3. Building blocks of attitudes 4. Putting it all, together 5, Linking attitudes to their objects 11. Superficial & Systematic Routes to Persuasion A. Superficial Processing: Persuasion shortcuts l. Linking affective information directly to the attitude object 2. Attractiveness heuristic 3. Familiarity heuristic 4. Feelings as heuristic cues 5. Expertise heuristic 6. Message—length heuristic B. Systematic processing of persuasive communications 1. Processing message content a. Attending to message b. Comprehending message c, Reacting to message content 01. Accepting the message 2. Consequences of systematic processing C. Superficial and Systematic Processing: Which Strategy, When? 1. How motivation influences systematic processing a. importance of being accurate b. Importance of self—relevance 2. Capacity factors that influence systematic processing a. Ability to process b. Opportunity to concentrate 3. Personality differences in responses to persuasive communications a. Need for cognition III. The Persuasive Power of Emotion A. Feeling Good but not always thinking straight 1. Positive mood and motivation 2. Positive mood and capacity B. Fear appeals and Persuasion IV. Defending Attitudes: Resisting Persuasion A. Forewarning means forearming 1. Inoculation: Practice can be the best medicine B. Subliminal Persuasion CHAPTER 8 -- ATTITUDES & BEHAVIOR 1. Changing attitudes with actions A. From action to attitude via superficial processing 1. Selfuperception theory a. Foot—in—the-door technique B. Cognitive Dissonance: Changing attitudes to justify behavior 1. Theory of Cognitive dissonance 2. Justifyng attitude-discrepant behavior 3. Justifying effort 4. Justifying decisions 5. Justifying attitude—consistent behavior 6. The processing payoff: dissonance creates persistent attitudes 7, Alternatives to attitude change 8. Dissonance and culture 11. Guiding actions with attitudes A, How attitudes guide behavior 1. Attitudes guide behaviors without much thought 2. Attitudes guide behavior through considered intentions a. Theory of reasoned action B When do attitudes influence action? 1. Attitude accessibility 2. Attitude compatibility 3. Attitude functionality 4. When attitudes are not enough CHAPTER 9 -- GROUPS, NORMS, & CONFORMITY I. Conformity to Social Norms A. The formation of social norms lt Sherif s autokinetic effect 2. Asch’s line experiment B Public vs. Private conformity II. Dual Functions of Conformity to Norms: Mastery and Connectedness A. Expecting consensus 1. False consensus effect B. Dual functions of conformity to norms l. Norms provide reality insurance —— informational influence 2. Norms give us feelings of connectedness — normative influence 3. Mastery, connectedness, or both? C. Whose consensus? The impact of reference groups 1. Reference group 2. Increasing the impact of reference groups III. How Groups form Norms: Processes of Social Influence A. Group Compromise B. Group Polarization C. Explaining polarized norm formation l, Superficial processing: relying on others’ positions 2. Systematic processing: attending to both positions and arguments IV. Conformity Pressure: Undermining true consensus A. When consensus seeking goes awry l. Consensus without consideration 2. Consensus without independence 3. Consensus without acceptance B. Consensus seeking at its worst: Groupthink 1. Causes and consequences of groupthink 2, Remedies for groupthink V. Minority Influence: The value of dissent A. Successful minority influence l. Offering an alternative consensus 2. Negotiating similarity and difference 3. Promoting systematic processing B. Processes of minority and majority influence CHAPTER 10 -— NORMS & BEHAVIOR I. Norms A. How norms guide behavior —— accessibility, reminders B. Why norms guide behavior 1. Enforcement 2. Internalization 3. Consensus & support 4. Frequent activation 5. Action heuristics C. Deindividuation II. The Norm of Reciprocity A. Returning favors B. Norm of reciprocity for consessions 1. Door in the face technique 2. Long—term consequences of reciprocating concessions III. Norm of Commitment A Low ball technique B. Long—term consequences of commitment IV. Norm of Obedience A. Miigram’s studies of obedience B. Attempting to explain obedience C. Norm of obedience to authority 1. Authority must be legitimate 2. Authority must accept responsibility 3. Norm of obedience must be accessible 4. Other norms must be less accessible D. From experimental obedience to social atrocities l. Escalation, entrapment, and routinization 2. Self—justification and blaming the victim 3. Hostility to and devaluation of outgroups Er Normative trade—offs: Pluses and minuses of obedience V. Rebellion and Resistance: Fighting back A. Reactance B. Systematic processing C. Using norms against norms Vl. Putting it all together: Multiple guides for behavior A. Both attitudes and norms influence behavior 1. The direct route 2. The indirect route —~ theory of planned behavior B. When attitudes and norms conflict: accessibility determines influence ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course PSYC 154 at San Jose State.

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Exam_3_Book - CHAPTER 7 —— ATTITUDES& ATTITUDE...

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