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Week_5_handout_Measurement_reliab_valid - ScWk 240 Research...

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ScWk 240 Research Methods and Design Week 5 9/26/08 San José State University Edward Cohen, Ph.D. Measurement in Social Research—Surveys and Interviews “England and America are two countries divided by a common language.” George Bernard Shaw I. Feedback about Written Assignment #1 II. APA Style and Writing the Literature Review— A. Read the “APA Style Sheet” on the course web page B. Citation and bibliography styles III. Study questions for Week 5 1. What’s the difference between “validity” and “reliability”? Give an example of each. 2. In the article “The cultural adaptation of the Youth Quality of Life Instrument” the authors use the term “cultural equivalence.” Define it, and describe a few of the components. 3. In the same article, researchers recommended changes not only to the Spanish version of the instrument, but also the English version. Why? 4. Describe the difference between open-ended and closed-ended questions. Give examples of each. IV. Handling Measurement Error--Validity and Reliability The presence of error is not an “all or nothing” thing. It has to be measured. How do we measure error so we can avoid it? There are two types of ways to measure error, roughly corresponding to random and systematic error: reliability and validity. There are various ways to test reliability and validity. Not all are required for each measure or instrument. ***Student report: What’s the difference between “validity” and “reliability”? Give an example of each. A. Reliability (of measure)—concerned with consistency of measurement , and it addresses random error . Reliability is whether or not a particular technique done repeatedly would yield the same result each time. There are four main indicators of 1
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reliability: 1. Interrater reliability —two researchers, same ratings 2. Test-retest reliability —same response from first test to re-test 3. Alternate forms reliability —same response from slightly different versions of same measure 4. Internal consistency reliability & use of coefficient alpha—similar questions (about the same concept) in survey are answered in the same way. *** Look for coefficient alphas in your literature review. It’s a number that tells you how well the questions in an instrument correlate with each other when the instrument is tested (you want a high number). You will need to report this for any instruments you use in your study. A
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Week_5_handout_Measurement_reliab_valid - ScWk 240 Research...

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