hunter_and_gatherer_ecology - Hunter-Gatherer Ecology...

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Sheet1 Page 1 Hunter-Gatherer Ecology lecture notes, 25th February, 09 I. Hunter Gatherer Ecology harvest of wild plant and animal resources foraging human history A. Hallmarks of Hunting and Gathering Societies i. Typically live in small groups of closely related families ii. Population densities of 0.01-1.00 per square mile dependent on quality and availability of resources iii. Generally fairly nomadic (depends on resource availability) but each group controls a territory, the boundaries of which are recognized by other groups (differ in degree to control over this territory is exclusive) iv. Gendered Division of Labor 1. Man the Hunter? Popular concept in 1960s evolution need for protein from therefore, in human evolutionary development a. Debunked on several grounds: i. bulk of the hunter-gather diet comes from plant foods harvested by women (and children) ii. Humans not the only primate to exhibit hunting behaviors b. First tools NOT for hunting but rather for carrying and for storage 2. Woman the Gatherer? a. women and children spend the bulk time gathering, but may also hunt small game b. men also involved in gathering large game (especially if the hunt involves long days of tracking) 3. more variation in gendered division of labor than initially thought 3 v. Egalitarianism? 1. many instances of complex hunter-gatherers with social stratification and hierarchical political structures a. examples from native North America of hunter-gatherers living in permanent villages, with political institutions and hierarchies, trade, warfare (i.e. the Kwakiutl) 2. development of inequality thought to be related to resource control access to resources? Hunting-and-gathering h a form of subsistence involving the availability and abundance h How well can groups or individuals
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Sheet1 Page 2 resources communities) Other Key Aspects of H-G Ecology & Social Organization vi. successful foraging requires EXTENSIVE knowledge of
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course ANTH 146 at San Jose State University .

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hunter_and_gatherer_ecology - Hunter-Gatherer Ecology...

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