week7_slides - ScWk 240 Research Methods and Design Week 7...

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ScWk 240 Research Methods and Design Week 7 – Causality and Internal Validity ScWk240 Ed Cohen Week 7 1
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Establishing Causality—What are the Requirements? 1. Time sequence: the cause (independent variable, or treatment) precedes the effect (dependent variable, or outcome) 2. The IV and the DV are associated. (They must be related or correlated statistically.) 3. The relationship between the IV and DV cannot be explained by a third variable (or rival hypothesis ) Original source: John Stuart Mill (1859) A System of Logic ScWk240 Ed Cohen Week 7 2
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ScWk240 Ed Cohen Week 7 3 Causality and an Evaluative Study 1. Time sequence 2. Correlation Those getting group therapy will have reduced level of anxiety. 3. Not caused by 3 rd variable (rival hypothesis) X Group therapy (indep variable) Y Anxiety (dep variable) Group tx (X 1 ) Medication (X 2 ) Anxiety
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ScWk240 Ed Cohen Week 7 4 The Ideal Experiment 1. Establish time order of independent variable 2. Treatment is manipulated as an IV 3. Establish association
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week7_slides - ScWk 240 Research Methods and Design Week 7...

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