Chapter 6 Neurotransmitter Systems

Chapter 6 Neurotransmitter Systems - Next time (Feb 18th):...

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Next time (Feb 18 th ): Review Session – Practice Exam will be on Sakai before the review – In review session we will go over the review questions, the practice exam, and any other questions from the lectures The exam is February 21 th , during regular class period (10:20 – 11:40), in the regular class room (PH 111) – Exam will have 33 multiple choice questions, and you will have the entire class period to finish it (80 minutes), so there will be no time pressure – No calculators needed – If you can not make it to the exam, you will need a valid excuse to take the make-up exam: Doctor’s note or Dean’s letter – Make-up exam will be short answer / short essay style questions (not multiple choice) – If you missed the exam and do not have a valid excuse to take the make-up exam, you will receive a zero on the exam. This will count toward your final grade in the class, no exam score will be dropped when final grade is calculated.
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Neurotransmitter Systems Chapter 6 and pages 544 – 545 498 - 507
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Acetylcholine (ACh) • ACh acts as a neurotransmitter – at the neuromuscular junction, synthesized by all motor neurons in the spinal cord – in the autonomic nervous system (vagus nerve onto cardiac cells, remember Otto Loewi’s experiments) – and in the brain (in the brain it is one of the diffuse modulatory neurotransmitters) • To terminate the action of ACh after it has been released, the enzyme acetylcholinesterase rapidly breaks down ACh in the synaptic cleft
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Acetylcholine (ACh), continued… • The nerve gas Sarin, and certain insecticides (organophosphates), inhibit achetylcholinesterase. This results in build-up of ACh in the synaptic cleft, resulting in desensitization of the ACh receptors. The muscle cells stop contracting, causing paralysis. Death is typically a result of respiratory paralysis. Increased concentrations of ACh at the heart also results in decreased heart rate and blood pressure. – Sarin was released in Tokyo’s subway system in 1995
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There are two types of ACh receptors; one is an ion channel (ionotropic), and one is metabotropic Both nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors are present in the brain. The ionotropic ACh receptor is found in skeletal muscles. It is called Nicotinic ACh receptor, because nicotine acts as an agonist on the receptor. Curare is an antagonist at nicotinic ACh receptors (it inhibits the action of ACh, and causes paralysis) The metabotropic ACh receptor is found in the heart and eye. Muscarine, from a poisonous mushroom, acts as an agonist (it slows the heart rate and results in a dangerously low blood pressure). Atropine is an antagonist at the muscarinic ACh receptor, it dilates the pupil; used by eye doctors
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Glutamate • Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, it is used at approximately 50 % of all brain synapses • There are three ionotropic glutamate receptors: AMPA receptor, NMDA receptor and Kainate receptor. • In stroke there is reduced blood flow to part of the brain,
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2008 for the course CELL BIO & 245 taught by Professor Schjott during the Spring '08 term at Rutgers.

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Chapter 6 Neurotransmitter Systems - Next time (Feb 18th):...

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