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Unformatted text preview: Ling 122: English as a World Language - 18 Language Language Contact: Pidgins & Creoles
Readings: Lipski, Crystal, Holman, Cheng Sample Pidgins & Creoles Sample Pidgins and Creoles Pidgins
Characteristics and origins of Pidgins and Creoles Expanded pidgins Creole origins From pidgins to creoles
Hawaiian Creole English
*Notes based on Jenkins, J. 2003. World Englishes, Routledge, pp. 5560, 99106, 154162. Developments in the UK and the US Pidgins Pidgins Limited functions (esp. trade) No native speakers (nobody’s mother tongue) Contact language involving at least two, often three different language groups That is, it is the product of a multilingual situation in which those who wish to communicate must find or improvise a simple language system that will enable them to do so. Pidgin Origins Pidgin So Pidgins, in the stereotypical case, are formed when speakers of one language engage in trade with speakers of another, or work on plantations managed by speakers of another, and neither knows the other’s language. In plantation settings, their manual function is to enable workers to communicate with each other, since plantation laborers very often do not speak the same language. Pidgins Pidgins
Very simple languages that develop just linguistically and functionally enough to satisfy their purposes Usually involve a European language (esp. English) and non European languages Very often, the situation (i.e. the context of origin) is one in which there is an imbalance of power among the languages. The speakers of one language dominate the speakers of the other languages economically and socially. That is, Superstratum language supplies most of vocabulary (new domain of use for nonEuropeans) Substratum language supplies much of the grammar Expanded Pidgins Expanded Pidgins usually have limited lifespan; can die out when the interactions that they serve end (e.g., the end of a trade route) Pidgins will survive longer if at least two substratum language groups are involved.
• E.g. NonEuropean language groups not in frequent contact with each other until arrival of transoceanic trade will continue to use the Pidgin created. Expanded Pidgins Expanded
So the pidgin becomes a link language among the nonEuropeans, who sometimes continue to develop and use it after the Europeans have left True in many West African countries and South Pacific islands (e.g., Sierra Leone in Story of English). So it can become an expanded pidgin, like the Nigerian pidgin Genesis, and remain in wide use. Grammar and vocabulary expand as types of interaction become broader and more complex. But still no native speakers. Expanded Pidgins Expanded
However, under certain circumstances, expanded pidgins can start to have native speakers Imagine that as trade along the rivers and the coastal areas continues to expand, Communities (ultimately cities) develop in which speakers of different nonEuropean languages interact frequently for many purposes The only language that they share is the pidgin If woman and man from different native language backgrounds meet frequently and eventually marry, they can only communicate with each other in the pidgin. Expanded Pidgins Expanded
What happens when they have children? What language will the children speak? The children will be native speakers of the pidgin, and they will grow up with other children having similar language backgrounds. As they grow up and become involved in broad range of activities (education, music,religion), their language becomes more complex in terms of grammar, vocabulary, and discourse. Creole Origins Creole
The pidgin has now developed into a creole, which is “the mother tongue of a community.” Creoles can become dominant languages of communities and even postcolonial nations e.g., Jamaica, Haiti Creoles often coexist with standard dialect of a former colonial European language, which remains the language of official power. Creoles Creoles
Thus, A Creole is often defined as a pidgin that has become the first language of a new generation of speakers, i.e. creoles arise when pidgins become mother tongues. A creole, therefore, is a ‘normal’ language in almost every sense. A Creole is a pidgin which has expanded in structure and vocabulary to express the range of meanings and serve the range of Pidgins and Creoles Pidgins
EnglishBased Pidgins and Creoles (35), E.g. Hawaiian Creole Gullah or Sea Islands Creole (spoken on the islands off the coasts of northern Florida, Georgian and South Carolina) Jamaican Creole Krio (spoken in Sierra Leone) Sranan and Djuka (spoken is Suriname) Cameroon Pidgin English Tok Pisin Chinese Pidgin English (a modified form of English used as a trade language between the British and the Chinese, first in Canton, China, and later in other Chinese trade centers (e.g., Shanghai). From Pidgins To Creoles From
When a pidgin has become nativized, the history of the resultant Creoles is, in essence, similar to that of any other language. Hence, whereas a pidgin is identifiable at any given time by both linguistic and social criteria, a Creole is identifiable only by historical criteria—that is if we know that it has arisen out of pidgin. There are no structural criteria which, in themselves, will identify a Creole as such, in the absence of historical evidence. HAWAI’AN PIDGIN HAWAI
Such a creole has developed in Hawai’i (though it’s often called Hawai’ian Pidgin!) On the colonial plantations, frequent contact among several Asian immigrant language groups (Chinese, Japanese, Korean), indigenous Hawai’ians, and Caucasian Americans As interactions among them become more frequent and complex, expanded pidgin develops Communicative functions expand, which requires more complex grammar and vocabulary When they intermarry, creole develops, which becomes first language of their kids Characteristics of Pidgins & Creoles Characteristics Lexis (vocabulary) Pronunciation Grammar Social Functions Lexis Lexis Drawn from dominant (lexifier) language (English, French, Portuguese, Dutch) Lexis rules for pidgins are simpler than for mature languages
• Concepts encoded in lengthy ways • Extensive use of reduplication
Pikpik “pigs” Gutpela liklik “fairly good” Yumitripela “we, us” Gras bilong pisin “feathers” Pronunciation Pronunciation Five vowel sounds: / i e a o u / Simplification of consonant clusters Conflation of consonant sounds Larger number of homophones
• /tiŋ/ > “thing” / “think’
• • /f/ > /p/ : /pren/ “friend” /š/ > /s/ : /bus/ “bush” • • /nd/ > /n/ : /paun/ “pound” /ks/ > /kis/ : /sikis/ “six” • “deep” / “dip” > /dip/ • “work” / “walk” > /wak/ Grammar Grammar Pidgins
• • • • • • • • • From pidgins to creoles Variable from speaker to speaker Few if any inflections Simple negation: “no” + X Simple clause structure Consistency across speakers Assimilation & reduction processes Expanded vocabularies Tense system Greater sentence complexity Pidgins: Limited range of social functions Extended pidgins and creoles: Wide range of social functions
• • • • • Oral and written literature Education Mass media Advertising Religion • As contact languages, used for minimal communication purposes Social Functions Social Creole Developments in the UK London Jamaican
• • • • Patois of British blacks Origins in the Caribbean Spoken by Londonborn youth Reflects process of recreolization (shift back to earlier forms of the creole) • Also spoken by young whites, Asians • “Language crossing” – use of minority varieties by ethnic outgroups Jamaican Creole Grammatical Features Features Interchangeable pronouns /em/ = “he, she, it, him, her,” etc. Present tense forms for present & past reference: /ai se/ = “I said.” Elimination of tense suffixes (s, ed): /yu bret stink/ = “Your breath stinks.” Prephrasal no for negation /no bret stink/ = “My breath doesn’t stink.” Jamaican Creole Phonological Features Features /θ/ & /ð/ > /t/ & /d/: /bret/ = “breath” Labialization after /b/: /bwoy/ = “boy” Deletion of final consonants: /bυlє/ = “bullet” /α/ & /ỏ/* > /a/: “cloth” > /klaat/ */ỏ/ = “open o” as in Lack of unstressed schwa: “the” > /da/ ~ /di/ Ebonics
• • • • • The US: From Pidgin to Creole to African American English? to
African American English (AAE) Not all African Americans speak it Some nonAfrican Americans speak it The language of descendents of slaves Traces origins to original slave pidgin and subsequent creoles • Shows possible traces of African languages • Nonstandard • Rulegoverned Ebonics Grammatical Features Ebonics Deletion of past tense suffixes Deletion of auxiliaries where SAE can contract Multiple negation Habitual be
• “He’s going” > /hi gowiŋ/, but not • “how pretty you are” > */haw prIti yu/ • “He don’t know nothing.” • “Sometime she be angry” but not • *“Sometime she angry.” • “There’s a beer in the frig” “It’s a beer in the frig” • “Yesterday he played” > /ple/ Existential It’s Reduction of final consonant clusters SAE /d/ and /t/ • “burned my hand” /bŗn ma hæn/ • “messed up” /mεs əp/ • “good man” /gυ mæn/ • “time” /Taim/ /Tam/ Ebonics Phonological Features Ebonics Monophthongization SAE /l/ and /r/ /ə/ SAE /ð/ and /θ/ /d/, /t/, /f/, /v/ • “steal” /stil/ /stiə/; “more” /mor/ /moə/ steal” • “thin” /tin/; “they” /de/ • “brother” /brəvŗ/; “three” /fri/ In China: A Sinicized English? In Currently, the English found in mainland China displays a cline of varieties, starting with pidgin (Cheng 1992) These varieties are reflective of the different stages of Chinese history English Situation in China English No English speaking Chinese community Not used as a lingua franca among the nations 56 ethnic groups No significant works of literature in English Used primarily in international communication 17th C.: Western powers in only a few ports in China (i.e., Guangzhou) 17001725: emergence of pidgin English in Guangzhou 1843: Treaty Ports established > spread of pidgin English Used as • means of communication between foreign masters and Chinese servants • Medium of exchange in retail shops catering to foreigners Sinicized English Sinicized Shift to More Standard Varieties Shift 1900s: Push toward modernization Pidgin English disparaged as ‘coolie esperanto” English taught in postprimary schools 1920s1940s – English equated with British literature • • Bookish English Known by educated elite English Influence on Chinese English New lexical items introduced into Chinese Modifications in Chinese syntax
• • • • More polysyllabic words Longer phrases Expanded use of the passive Longer modifiers before nouns (instead of after nouns) Dominance of British English in China China Due to: • Influence of Russian education system, based on the British • Lack of contact with the U.S. (no formal diplomatic relations after the Communist Revolution) • Presence of British citizens on the editorial staffs of Englishlanguage publications in China Chinese Influence on Chinese English - Nativization English Idioms
• • • • Lexical connotations and semantic shifts Style of discourse
• More polemic Capitalist & bourgeois = negative Communist & propaganda = positive Capitalist roader = one who favors capitalism Running dog = lackey Generalization Regarding English in China English English in China reflects the sociopolitical situations there. When China is inwardlooking (pre 20th c. and during the Cultural Revolution), the English there acquires more Chinese elements. When China is outwardsearching, English there is more like the norm in the West.
(Cheng 1992: 174) ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course ASIA 122 at San Jose State University .