Study Guide for the MIDTERM

Study Guide for the MIDTERM - a Rapid cooling = obsidian b...

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Study Guide for the MIDTERM #1 GEOL107 1. What are minerals? A naturally occurring crystalline solid with distinctive physical properties and a specified chemical composition a. How do rocks form? Made up of one or more minerals (or masses of mineral like matter (i.e. Partially altered vegetation in coal, and natural glass) b. Know the materials and processes involved in the rock cycle on earth. i. Magma > consolidation > igneous rocks (extrusive) > weathering > transportation > deposition > sediments > lithifications (compacting/cementing) > sedimentary rocks > metamorphism > metamorphic rocks > melting 2. Igneous rocks? Cool and crystallized from magma, molten materials below surface, or lava. (formed by pyroclastic materials [volcanic ash])
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Unformatted text preview: a. Rapid cooling = obsidian b. Can be extrusive (volcanic) formed on surface c. Can be intrusive (plutonic) formed from magma injected into crust d. How igneous rocks help us understand prehistoric life. 3. Sedimentary rocks. Forms on earths surface, different kinds: a. Detrital SR – made up of solid particles (i.e. gravel, sand, derived from preexisting rocks) b. Chemical SR – made up of minerals in solution and extracted by inorganic or organic processes. 4. What features of sedimentary rocks can we use to understand the environment in which the sediment was deposited? a. What else can sedimentary structures be used for?...
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