lecture 2 s 10 de & inductive logic

# lecture 2 s 10 de & inductive logic - BASIC LOGICAL...

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BASIC LOGICAL CONCEPTS Task: distinguish good arguments from bad. Two questions: Are the premises true? Do the premises provide good reasons to accept the conclusion?

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TWO ARGUMENT TYPES Deductive arguments (try to) PROVE their conclusions Inductive arguments (try to) show that their conclusions are PLAUSIBLE OR LIKELY .
DEDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS Some pigs have wings. All winged things sing. Therefore some pigs sing. Everyone has one and only one biological mother. Full sisters have the same biological mother. No one is her own biological mother. Therefore there is no one whose biological mother is also her sister. Y?r › “¶ ¡ ?‡⁄ ¡ ?« „ † ‡¡ ‒ƒ¡ †

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INDUCTIVE ARGUMENTS Every ruby discovered thus far has been red. So, probably all rubies are red. Polls show that 87% of 5-year-olds believe in the tooth fairy. Marta is 5 years old. Marta probably believes in the tooth fairy . Chemically, potassium chloride is very similar to ordinary table salt (sodium chloride). Therefore potassium chloride tastes like table salt.
THE DIFFERENCE Y? ~ ¡ ~ · | ‡ƒ¶ ¡ N ƒ‹ ~ · | ‡ƒ¶ ¡ h¢?‡⁄ ¡ ?ﬁ ‒¡ « ƒ† ¡ † ?\ ‒¡ ?‡‒· ¡ ?‡⁄ ¡ ?| › ‹ | “· † ƒ› ‹ ‹ ¡ | ¡ † † \ ‒ƒ“„ N ﬁ ‒› ‘ \ ‘ “„ ?ƒ† ?‡‒· ¡ M h‡?ƒ† ? ƒ« ﬁ › † † ƒ‘ “¡ N · ‹ “ƒ¤ ¡ “„ ? ¢› ‒?‡⁄ ¡ ?ﬁ ‒¡ « ƒ† ¡ † ?‡› ?‘ ¡ ?‡‒· ¡ ?\ ‹ ~ ?‡⁄ ¡ ?| › ‹ | “· † ƒ› ‹ ?‡› ?‘ ¡ ?¢\ “† ¡ M h‡?ƒ† ?“› £ ƒ| \ ““„ ? ƒ‹ | › ‹ † ƒ† ‡¡ ‹ ‡ N | › ‹ † ƒ† ‡¡ ‹ ‡ ? ‡› ?\ † † ¡ ‒‡?‡⁄ ¡ ?ﬁ ‒¡ « ƒ† ¡ † ?‘ · ‡?~ ¡ ‹ „ ?‡⁄ ¡ ?| › ‹ | “· † ƒ› ‹ M

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FOUR TESTS Four tests allow us to identify deductive/inductive arguments The indicator word test The strict necessity test The common pattern test The principle of charity test
INDICATOR WORD TEST Deduction Induction Certainly Probably Definitely Likely Absolutely Plausible Conclusively Reasonable This entails that The odds are that

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CAUTION Arguments may not contain any indicator words.
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