EPIDEMIOLOGYINTROrev

EPIDEMIOLOGYINTROrev - Introduction to Epidemiology...

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Introduction to Epidemiology Historical Perspectives and Infectious Diseases
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES: Historical Facts Middle Ages: Bubonic plague [mortality: 1 of 4 people in Europe] Nineteenth century: Tuberculosis [mortality: 1 of 3 of all deaths in US & Europe]
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1862: US Civil War Federal forces losses— 44,000 died in battle + 49,000 died of wounds = 93,000 186,000 died of disease
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What Diseases? Typhoid Dysentery Malaria Measles Tuberculosis Pneumonia
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Mortality due to Disease Leading cause of death: Typhoid and dysentery Second cause of death: Malaria Prevalence Rate: 52%, 52/100 or 520/1000 or 5,2000/10,000
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After WW I 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic Worldwide: 21 million people dies United States: ½ Million people died
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Epidemiology: Study of factors or characteristics associated with diseases or health conditions Includes Infectious disease Non-infectious diseases & conditions
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Terminology for Epidemiology Infectivity Pathogenicity Toxicity Virulence Invasiveness Antgenicity
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More Terminology Endemic Epidemic Surveillance Agent Host Environment
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Example: CVD in California Heart Attacks Strokes Hypertension Peripheral vascular disease General circulatory problems
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CVD in California Contributed to 42% of all deaths (1990) >88,535 people died = to 34,600 more deaths than from Cancer and AIDS combined
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CVD in California (continued) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey was done to examine Major CVD risk factors (1991) Findings from this epidemiological study: 23% did not get any extra exercise 23% were overweight 20% smoked cigarettes 20% knew they had high blood pressure
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Epidemiology: Definition THE STUDY OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF HEALTH & ILLNESS WITHIN THE POPULATION FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE POPULATIONS HEALTH STATUS
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EPIDEMIOLOGIC TRIAD
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EPIDEMIOLOGYINTROrev - Introduction to Epidemiology...

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