Chinese Responses - THE WAYS OF QING ZHONGGUO RESPONSES TO...

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THE WAYS OF QING ZHONGGUO RESPONSES TO WESTERN CHALLENGES A_ INTRODUCTION 1_ An Introduction to the Qing Zhongguo 2_ The Three Ways of Qing Zhongguo Responses a_ The Way of Dynastic (Qing) Response b_ The Way of Hakka (non-Han and anti-Manchu) Response c_ The Way of Han Response B_ INTRODUCTION TO THE QING ZHONGGUO 1_ The Ethnic Origin of the Manchus The Manchus were not Han (non-Han) and considered by Hanren as “barbarian” By early 17 th century, various Manchu (nomadic) tribes were unified by Nurhachi into a new nation (Kimguo) in the region now known Manchuria through a combination of military campaign and marriage alliances. In 1625, Nurhachi proclaimed himself “Emperor” and established his capital in present-day Mukden, adopted Han system of civil administration, and succeeded by one of his sons when he died in 1626. The Six Ministries and Censorate were established in 1631 and Han scholar-officials were appointed to highest positions in administration and army. 2_ The Creation and Power of the Qing Empire 1636: The proclamation of the Qing (Ch’ing [Clear]) Dynasty at Mukden setting the stage for the conquest of Ming Zhongguo. 1644: Beijing captured by Manchus and made capital of the Qing Dynasty Rebellions broke out in north China in 1630’s, and in 1644 the rebel army of Li Tzu-ch’eng captured Beijing. When the Ming general Wu San-kuei called on the Manchus for aid, Banner troops streamed into north China and rapidly dispersed the rebels. “The Manchus then occupied Peking themselves and proclaimed it the capital of the Ch’ing dynasty.” (643) 3_ The Zenith of the Qing Power (with glorious reigns)
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course ANTH 114 at San Jose State University .

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Chinese Responses - THE WAYS OF QING ZHONGGUO RESPONSES TO...

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