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14 page project Fluids papercontentes

# 14 page project Fluids papercontentes - Principles of...

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Principles of Siphoning ME 111 – Fluid Dynamics San José State University Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering By November 25, 2008

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ABTRACT For this experiment, our team wanted to use basic principles of fluid dynamics to show how a siphon works and what needs to be done to siphon any liquid with different viscosities. To do this we used water and oil to siphon the liquids from ground level to an increasing height. This showed us that the more viscous a liquid is, the more pressure is required to over come the distance of the high level bucket to the top of the tube where it starts to curve down. We also found that more pressure needs to be applied to make the liquid surpass the top level of the tube by a length that is equal or more so the liquid can create a vacuum that starts the siphoning to the ground level bucket. So we found that the best way to siphon a liquid, the pressure should be just enough to cause the liquid to travel from any height to reach an equal or greater length of the distance where the tube starts to curve to the level of the liquid. Intro Ever wonder why your toilet makes that sucking noise after you have flushed it? That's due to siphoning of the fluids. Siphoning is an very old technology dating back into the BC's, yet we still rely on it everyday.The priciple of the siphon was first discovered by Ctesibius and that was documented by his student, Hero of Alexandria. Alexandria wrote about siphons in work, Pneumatica. The next documentation of siphoning was by the Egyptians in the 1500BC, where they used it to get fluids from large resoviors such as storage jars. Siphons were first used in wars by the Byzantine Navy, to spread “Greek fire,” burning oil, onto oppsing ships. As mentioned above siphons are very useful, especially in sewage systems. Before we can understand flush toilets we must have a basics understanding of siphoning. Siphons are defined as a tube making use of a phenomenom caused by gravity. It is better to show an generic application to show how siphoning works. The requiments to demomstrate this phenomenom are two differenct container with the intake container liquid level higher than the output container. Connecting the two is and inverted “U” shaped pipe or tube. Liquids can rise over the crest of a tube because they are pushed by atmospheric pressure. Siphons must be started by causing negavtive pressure in the tube. There are many ways to do this, such as sucking on the outlet of the tube. Atmospheric pressure must act on both ends of the siphon. The outlet leg of the siphon must be the longer leg in order to carry greater weight of liquid. After it is started gravity drains the liquid maintains the low pressure that was initiated at the by a pump. It continues to drain until the levels of the two container are even or a disturbance has caused it to cavitating within the tube. There are two main effects that can cause it to cavitate. The first is when the intake side of the tube no longer contacts
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14 page project Fluids papercontentes - Principles of...

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