Ojibwa 2 - The 'ibw'a "The People” Endure Long...

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Unformatted text preview: The 'ibw'a "The People” Endure Long before the world began, there was Gitchimanito, the Great Spirit. He made wind and water, fire and rock; he made the sun and stars and To . the Earth he gave tall trees and green plants. He created animals that ran on four legs, animals that flew, animals that swam and, last, he created the people. Gitchimanito arranged all he created by the four sacred directions—north, south, west, and east—and then two more: the sky above, and the earth below. Not long after, the seas flooded the earth, and the animals tried to find it again, to no avail. One after the other, they searched beneath the seas, until finally the muskrat scraped a pawful of soil from the submerged earth, and from that scrap the world was recreated. Gitchimanito envisioned a purpose for the spirit of all he created. Trees would grow large and give shade and pro. tection. Plants would flourish and give food and medicine. Animals would be bountiful and their lives offered up as food and clothing for the people. But all this goodness would be recognized and appreciated by the pe0ple whose ben- efit it would serve. Nothing would be sacrificed without praise and thanks and a token of appreciation. . i _ The peeple lived first by the great ocean m the east, but a VlSlOn carried them westward and, following it, they found the Great Lakes. This is the beginning of the Ojibwa’s tale, the explanation of their creation and of finding their home. Overview r The Ojibwa, a Native American group living in the northern rnidwest in the United States and sOuth-central Canada, refer to themselves as Anishinabe, which literally means "human being,” a term by which many of the world’s people are known to‘ thefitselves. There is some speculation and disagreement about the ori- gin of the name Ojibwa. It has been said to refer to their style of moccasin ("ojibwa” meaning puckered up, and referring to the crimped stitching that edges the moc- casins). Others (Tanner 1992) suggest that it is instead derived from "OjWeg," which means "those who make pictographs,” and that their name refers instead . to the paintings on birch bark that were traditionally used as a form of writing. Originally, an area extending north of Lakes Superior and Huron was home to the Ojibwa. Beginning the seventeenth century, their geographical expan- sion resulted in a four-part division. These groups are: the Salteaux (Northern Ojibwa); the Plains Ojibwa, or Bungee; the Southeastern Ojibwa, and the South- western Chippewa. By the end of the eighteenth century the Salteaux occupied the Canadian Shield north of Lake Superior and south and west of Hudson and James Bays. This is a flat area of poor soil, and numerous lakes and swamps. Plains Ojibwa country, in southem Saskatchewan and Manitoba, is a region forested with oak and ash, with great rolling hills. The Southeastern Ojibwa in Michigan’s lower peninsula, eastern upper peninsula, and adjacent areas of Ontario share an environment similar to that of the Southwestern Chippewa in northern Minnesota, extreme northem Wismnsin, Michigan’s western upper peninsula, and Ontario between Lake Superior and the Manitoba border. Both live in countries of rolling hills, deciduous forests of maple, birch, poplar, and oak, and marshes, prairies, rivers, and lakes. They live with long, cold winters and short, hot summers. The Ojibwa, one of the largest American Indian groups north of Mexico, numbered at least 35,000 in the mid-seventeenth century. Today the Ojibwa have been given one hundred or more small reservations in Michigan, Wiscon- sin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Montana, and Oklahoma. 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I]!!! . , . 0.03000 0300.0 Religion and View of the World Ojibwa religion is bound up with several distinctive features: dreammg, fast- ing, visions, and, above all else, the relationship with"’the grandfathers,” the other-than—human beings. ~ According to Hallowell, "faith in the power of the other than human per- sons, trust in the essential help they can offer human beings, and dependence upon them in order to achieve a good life define the . . . core of Ojibwa reli- gion." (1992:81) Religious beliefs that emphasize this critical relationship direct behavior, and thus function as a primary way of maintaining the social order. The primary contact bet-ween individuals and these other beings is achieved during dreaming, a state of primary importance in Ojibwa life. It is during dreams that power is given and received, and while contact can be . made with "the grandfathers" outside of dreams, it is only in the dreaming state that the most intimate and powerful relationship is forged. Just as a sharp dichotomy between the natural and the supematural can- not be effectively drawn for the Ojibwa, neither can experience gained through waking and dreaming teachings be set in opposition. The world experienced while dreaming is not one of fantasy and unreality; it is another occasion for reflective thought. One difference between the experiences of sleep and waking, however, is the ability of the soul during-sleep to break free of the body, allowing the most intense contact with other-than-human beings. During such contact, "blessings" of knowledge, and, thus, power, are bestowed; beginning in early childhood, one is encouraged to dream in order to receive these blessings. To facilitate visionary dreams, boys especially were encouraged in a fast, during which time they would be visited by "the grandfathers.” During this state, the fasting boy would be approached by one who would take him under his wing and tutelage, whom he could See and hear. The fasting period might last a week before such "guardian spirits" would appear; the boy’s father or grandfather might appeal to their own long-ago recognized teachers to help secure the boy’s own blessing. Once secured, the vision was not discussed. In fact, if a boy began ,to dis- cuss his experience, or ask for guidance in interpreting what he had dreamt, he was cautioned against it; seeking clarification through discussion of one’s vision might be grounds to lose the blessing and the power it bestowed. A dreamer's family was made aware obliquely of the fast’s fruition by a boy’s change in behavior. He became somewhat withdrawn and introspective, observed new ritual obligations assumed to have been demanded of him in his dream. His proud family let his achievement be known to the rest of the com- munity, but also only inferentially: they had found him in an altered state of consciousness, his manner had changed, they had seen differences in his behavior. Dreams and visions varied greatly, in both content and intensity, from per- son to person. Some "dream visitors” impart only knowledge and access to trapping and fishing; others to warfare; still others imparted the skills neces. sary for curing. One person may be visited by many guardian spirits; others may never fulfill their quest for a vision. Whether blessed by many or none, the dreamer was to remain equally silent, both because boasting is unacceptable and because it je0pardizes one’s ability to hold onto the power received. It has been suggested that one reason that Ojibwa feel a strong link between humans and the other-than-human spirits that are "the grandfathers" is that both classes of persons are bOund by the same moral order. Primary among these shared values is the importance of mutual exchange. The guardian spir- its give blessings and knowledge to their human grandchildren; they have an excess of power, more than they need, and thus they must share it. . The egalitarian focus that serves to distribute goods and services in a soci- ' ety without a market economy also guides the act of sharing across human and nonhuman boundaries. The accumulation of excess goods, indicative of greed, is as unbefitting to "the grandfathers" as it is to those who dream of them. Self- deprivation can be taken to excess as much as overacquisitiveness. One boy was reported to have been dissatisfied with the blessing he received during his fasting vision. His desire was to know everything in the world, to dream of every leaf on every tree so he could see beyond them to know all. He con- tinued to fast. This desire, considered greedy, was granted, but with the proviso that as the leaves fell from the tree, so too would the boy fall ill. And when the trees were at last bare, his life too would end. As Hallowell explains, "Over- fasting is considered as greedy as hoarding. It violates a basic moral value of the cosmic society of the Ojibwa." (1992292) In keeping with the rights and duties bound up in sharing and reciprocity, the blessings received during the dreams were not bestowed without obliga- tion. If one was to utilize the knowledge and power obtained through vision to their fullest extent, both prohibitions and "debts" must be attended to. In some cases, food taboos were imposed by guardian spirits who were owners of that animal species. In others, items of clothing or adOrnment associated through myth with the bestower of one’s blessings must be worn. Often contact was for- bidden between the dreamer and certain other individuals. None of these Observances may be explained; consequently, recipients of blessings often are forced to endure misunderstanding by others, requiring the exercise of great self-control. Infractions result not only in the withdrawal of the blessing; even unintentional violation of such taboos extracted a penalty, usually illness. Any breach of conduct between people or between humans and other-than-humans ' _is punished eventually; there is no comfort to be taken in the passage of time. "Bad conduct . . . ’will keep following you.’ Sooner or later you will suffer because of it.” (Hallowell 1992:93) Moreover, it may be those closest to you who will pay the price for your own infraction; it may be your children who fall ill and die. ...
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Ojibwa 2 - The 'ibw'a "The People” Endure Long...

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