Ling 21 - Lecture 9 - Analysing Short Arguments

Ling 21 - Lecture 9 - Analysing Short Arguments - Lecture...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture 9: Lecture Analyzing Arguments – Diagramming Short Arguments Arguments Diagramming Short Arguments Diagramming Argument: The death penalty should be abolished The because it’s racially discriminatory, there’s no evidence that it’s a more effective deterrent than life imprisonment, and innocent people may be executed by mistake. mistake. Diagramming Short Arguments Diagramming Step 1: Step Identify (circle, underline, etc.) all premise and / or conclusion indicators. premise The death penalty should be abolished The because it’s racially discriminatory, there’s because no evidence that it’s a more effective deterrent than life imprisonment, and innocent people may be executed by mistake. mistake. Diagramming Short Arguments Diagramming Step 2: Number the statements consecutively as Step they appear in the argument. they The death penalty should be abolished because it’s racially discriminatory, there’s no evidence that it’s a more effective there’s deterrent than life imprisonment, and deterrent innocent people may be executed by mistake. 1) 2) 3) 3) 4) Diagramming Short Arguments Diagramming Step 3: Step Arrange the numbers on a page with the premises placed above the conclusion(s) they claim to support. conclusion(s) 2) 2) 3) 4) 1) Diagramming Short Arguments Diagramming Step 4: Omit any logically irrelevant statements. Step 5: Use arrows to mean ‘is offered as evidence Step for’ to show relationship of argument support. 2) 2) 3) 4) 1) Here 2), 3), and 4) offer independent support for the Here independent conclusion. conclusion. Diagramming Short Arguments Diagramming A premise provides independent support for a premise independent conclusion when the amount of support it provides would not be weakened or destroyed by the removal of any other premise in the argument. removal A premise provides linked support when it works premise linked conjointly with another premise to support the conclusion: EXAMPLE: No members of the Leland Stanford Junior EXAMPLE: University Marching Band is a fan of SJSU. Maurice is a member of the Leland Stanford Junior University Marching Band. So, Maurice is not a fan So Maurice of SJSU. of Diagramming Short Arguments – Linked Support Linked No members of the Leland Stanford No Junior University Marching Band is a fan of SJSU. 2) Maurice is a member of the Leland 2) Maurice Stanford Junior University Marching Bang. Bang. 3) So, Maurice is not a fan of SJSU. 1) Diagramming Short Arguments Diagramming Linked Support: 1) + 2) 3) 3) Linked or Independent Support? Linked Linked: Omission of one premise cancels / reduces support provided by the other. provided Example: No student in Ling 21 is a No Rhodes Scholar. Rhodes Josue is a Rhodes Josue Scholar. Scholar. So, Josue is not a So, student in Ling 21. student Independent: Neither premise would provide less support for the conclusion if the other were omitted. were Example: Nick doesn’t own a car. Nick Nick is legally blind. Nick So Nick probably won’t drive a car to the game. Linked or Independent Support? Linked Ten witnesses way they saw Blotto rob the Ten bank. The stolen bank money was found in Blotto’s car. Blotto’s fingerprints were found at the Teller’s window. Therefore, Blotto probably robbed the bank. Blotto If Amy runs marathons, then she’s If probably very fit. Amy does run marathons. So Amy probably is very fit. marathons. Other Kinds of Support Other Jim is a senior citizen. 2) So, Jim probably doesn’t like hip-hop music. 3) So, Jim probably won’t be going to the Jim Ashanti concert tonight. Ashanti 1) 1) 2) 3) Other Kinds of Support Other Example: Most Democrats are liberals, and Senator Most Dumdiddle is a Democrat. Thus, Senator Dumdidle is probably a liberal. Therefore, Senator Dumdiddle probably supports affirmative action in higher education, because most liberals support affirmative action in higher education. action Other Kinds of Support Other Example: 1) 2) 2) 3) 3) 4) 5) Most Democrats are liberals, and Most Senator Dumdiddle is a Democrat. Senator Thus, Senator Dumdidle is probably a liberal. Therefore, Senator Dumdiddle probably Senator supports affirmative action in higher education, supports because most liberals support affirmative action in higher education. in Other Kinds of Support Other Premises and conclusions: 1) + 3) 2) + 4) 5) Other Kinds of Support Other Cheating is wrong for several reasons. First, it will Cheating lower your self-respect, because you can never be proud of anything you got by cheating. Second, cheating is a lie because it deceives other people into thinking you know more than you do. Third, cheating violates the teacher’s trust that you will do your own work. Fourth, cheating is unfair to all the people who aren’t cheating. Finally, if you cheat in school now, you’ll find it easier to cheat in other situations later in life – perhaps even in your closest personal relationships. personal Other Kinds of Support Other 1) Cheating is wrong for several reasons. 1) 2) First, it will lower your self-respect, 3) because you can never be proud of anything you because got by cheating. 4) Second, cheating is a lie 5) because it deceives other people into thinking you because know more than you do. 6) Third, cheating violates the teacher’s trust that you will do your own work. 7) Fourth, cheating is unfair to all the people who aren’t cheating. 8) Finally, if you cheat in school now, you’ll find it easier to cheat in other situations later in life – perhaps even in your closest personal relationships. perhaps Other Kinds of Support Other Notice the use of because in 3) and 5): Notice because 3) 5) 2) 4) Other Kinds of Support Other Note that 2), 4), 6), 7), and 8) all provide Note independent support for the main conclusion 1): independent 3) 2) 5) 4) 6) 7) 8) 1) Tips on Diagramming Short Arguments Tips Find the main conclusion first Find main Pay close attention to premise and conclusion Pay indicators. indicators Remember: sentences containing the word ‘and’ often contain two or more separate statements. contain Treat conditional statements (if-then) and disjunctive Treat conditional and statements (either-or) as single statements. statements Don’t number / diagram any sentence that is not a Don’t statement. statement. Don’t diagram irrelevant statements. Don’t irrelevant Don’t diagram redundant statements. Don’t redundant Practice Practice Critical Thinking, p. 178-82, Exercise 7.1 Step 1: Identify (circle, underline, etc.) all premise Step and / or conclusion indicators. and Step 2: Number the statements consecutively as Step they appear in the argument. they Step 3: Arrange the numbers on a page with the Step premises placed above the conclusion(s) they claim to support. to Step 4: Omit any logically irrelevant statements. Step 5: Use arrows to mean ‘is offered as evidence Step for’ to show relationship of argument support. ...
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