Introduction to Cross-Cultural Organizational Psychology

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to CrossIntroduction Cultural Organizational Cultural Psychology Psychology Sharon Glazer, Ph.D. San Jose State University What do you think? What The world is essentially a global village. The world would be a better place if everybody behaved like the people in my country. One could live in any country in the world, if one were honest and well­intentioned. Business is business in any country. Children’s upbringing at home and their lives in school and later in the workplace are unrelated. National cultures will be a thing of the past 50 years from now and beyond. What is Culture? What A set of learned & shared attitudes, beliefs, values, customs, meanings, symbols, & behaviors, that provides distinction and meaning for the existence of a given group of people over a period of history. It can be determined by national identification & historical­social circumstances. It is often taken for granted as reality by those within it. The attributes characterizing a culture may fluctuate in intensity of meaning and salience to certain individuals within the culture. Drastic political and economic changes may play a big role in the fluctuating meaning of cultural attributes. What is Culture? cont’d What Culture Culture Culture is adaptive Consists of shared elements Transmitted across time periods • How many cultures are there? What Behaviors Vary Across Cultures? Cultures? Objective culture Subjective culture What do we learn by analyzing subjective culture? Goals of Cross-Cultural Organizational Psychology Organizational Transport and Test Explore and Discover Integrate WHY? • Emics vs. Etics • Imposed vs. Derived Etics Theoretical Orientations Theoretical Absolutism Relativism Universalism What have we learned so far? What What is organizational psychology? What is culture? What is cross­cultural psychology? From which discipline does it come? What is cross­cultural organizational psychology? What are the goals of C­C Org Psyc? What are the theoretical orientations researchers take? Cultural Differences Cultural Japanese and American management is ninety­five percent the same, and differs in all important respects. S. Honda What is National Culture? What Distinguishes the values endorsed by the majority of people in a country that serves to guide their behaviors, thoughts, and feelings, that differ from those of another country. Influences of Culture on Person Influences National culture influences all aspects of our lives, including 1.social class structure 2.children accompanying their mothers 3.sleeping arrangements between parents and children 4.behavior toward elderly, young, women, men 5.fighting back or sitting down to talk 6.speak one’s mind or to save others’ face 7.wear skirts, shorts, veils, caps 8.at what age are people given independence to make decisions Schein’s Framework Schein’s Practices Values Assumptions Ecology Ecology Ecology culture social behavior Ecology culture socializations personality behavior Very cold winters people work together to prepare for cold work in teams helpful & giving warm relations with your work colleagues, likely to be a transformational leader Why C-C Organizational Psychology Psychology What level of analysis is the focus of study in organizational psychology? Why study organizational psychology from a cross­cultural perspective? Surface Culture: aspects of culture that people see or perceive, e.g., dress, nonverbal communication, cultural artifacts Process Culture: the ways in which we engage in cultural interactions, i.e., “how to” competently interact Deep Culture: the concepts that give meaning to surface culture, in other words “the why,” e.g., a culture’s logic system or values Surface, Process, & Deep Culture Culture National Culture National “Collective programming of the mind.” Hofstede The primary values, practices, beliefs (axioms), norms, and language that characterize a particular country. Values Research • Hofstede (1980; 2001) • Schwartz (1994; 1999) • House – GLOBE studies (2001) 3 Levels of Mental Programming Programming From Biological inheritance to Socialization 1. Universal level (biological) 2. Collective level (shared by some) • What does it include? 3. Individual level (personality) Hofstede’s Culture Values Hofstede’s Individualism­Collectivism Power Distance Masculinity­Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Kluckhohn-Strodtbeck: Basic Cultural Characteristics Basic Relationship to the environment Time Orientation Nature of People Activity Orientation Focus of Responsibility Conception of Space Domination Past Good Being Individualistic Private Harmony Present Mixed Controlling Group Mixed Subjugation Future Evil Doing Hierarchical Public Schwartz’s Culture Values Affective Autonomy Mastery Anglo Intellectual Autonomy ur . E W e op East Asia Hierarchy Latin Am. Egalitarianism opeHarmony Conservatism E. Eu r GLOBE’s Culture Values GLOBE’s Performance Orientation Assertiveness Future Orientation Humane Orientation Institutional Collectivism In­Group Collectivism Gender Egalitarianism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Cultural Syndrome Cultural Attributes of a cultural entity Low Egalitarianism High Autonomy High Mastery Tight High Power Distance High Uncertainty Avoidance Medium Collectivism Masculine High Egalitarianism High Intellectual Autonomy High Harmony Loose Low Power Distance Low Uncertainty Avoidance Individualistic Feminine Sweden Japan ...
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