Topic_4_Health_Enhancing

Topic_4_Health_Enhancing - Health-Enhancing Behaviors...

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Health-Enhancing Behaviors
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Exercise
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Types of Exercise Aerobic Exercise Elevated heart rate and respiration Weight training Resistance important for development of lean muscle mass Increased activity Increasing daily movement to improve fitness
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Benefits of Exercise - Physiological Increases in cardiovascular fitness and endurance 30-minute/day decreases the risk of chronic disease Improved circulation Strengthens bones and increases joint flexibility Improves digestion and fat metabolism Increases muscle strength and tone Increased longevity by age 80, the amount of additional life attributable to aerobic exercise is between 1 and 2 years
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Benefits of Exercise - Psychological Psychological Effects of Exercise Improved mood Exercise as effective as therapy for depression for most people Decreased anxiety May decrease stress and protect against effect of stressors Exercise addiction?
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Exercise: Determinants of Regular Exercise Exercise schedules are usually erratic Lack of time and stress undermine good intentions About 50% of people who initiate a voluntary exercise program are still doing it after 6 months Individual Characteristics Gender, weight, social support, self-efficacy predict exercise adherence Characteristics of the Setting Convenient and accessible settings predict adherence
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Exercise: Characteristics of Interventions Strategies Stages of Change model helps understand levels of motivation Cognitive-behavioral strategies promote adherence Telephone and mail reminders are effective in relapse prevention Individualized Exercise Programs Understanding motivation and attitudes aids in development of a program of activities that are liked and are convenient
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Diet
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Maintaining a Healthy Diet: Overview Controllable risk for many causes of death 35% of U.S. population gets 5 servings of fruit and vegetables each day Unhealthy eating contributes to 300,000+ deaths per year Dietary change is critical for those at risk for Coronary artery disease, hypertension Diabetes Cancer
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Prevalence of Overweight and Obese Americans
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Weight Gain/Loss Formula Wt +/- = cal absorbed through food ------------------------------------- cal spent through metab. & activity
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Basal Metabolic Rate and Caloric Intake Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) Body’s base rate of energy expenditure Influenced by heredity, age (higher in younger people), activity level, and body composition (fat tissue has a lower metabolic rate) Calorie amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of water 1 degree Celsius
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Weight Regulation The Search for Hunger/Satiety Signals Feelings of hunger rise and fall with levels of glucose and insulin Possible link to the number of fat cells in the body Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) Stimulation leads to hunger Lesioning leads to self-starvation Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH) VMH lesioning leads to hunger VMH stimulation causes an animal to stop eating
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course PSYC 190 at San Jose State University .

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Topic_4_Health_Enhancing - Health-Enhancing Behaviors...

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