This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: Assertiveness
Three Interpersonal Styles Passive Assertive You clearly express your feelings, and needs, without violating the rights of others. Aggressive Your opinions, feelings and needs are withheld, or expressed only in part You honestly state your feelings and needs, but at the expense of other's feelings. Assertiveness Describe thoughts, non-blaming description Use "I" statements to express your feelings Main message- trying to solve a problem, not blame Ex. "I felt hurt when I didn't see you at my birthday" Express your wants in specific behaviors Instead of, "Stop being so inconsiderate" "Could you call me next time if you can't make it?" Additional Techniques Negative Inquiry Asking for more specific criticism Negative Assertion Agreeing without letting up on your decision Fogging Finding limited truth that you agree with Persuasion The process by which attitudes are changed How do you change someone's mind? The Norm of Reciprocity: Social norm and psychological desire to treat others as we have been treated. Golden Rule, An eye for an eye... This can be used to exploit us, compliance Norm of Reciprocity Dennis Regan's (1971) study Experiment on "aesthetics" Condition 1: Other in study brings a soda "Confederate" Condition 2: No soda for either Condition 3: experimenter gives sodas Norm of Reciprocity Dennis Regan's (1971) study Confederate: likable (kind) vs. unlikable (rude) Participants bought more raffle tickets from condition 1 (brought them a soda), even if unlikeable characteristics. Jerry Burger and colleagues (1997) Replicated the study- must cash in; won't work a week later; short-lived. Norm of Reciprocity Some are more likely to exploit this norm "Creditors" try to keep others in debt so they can cask in when needed (Geenberg &
Westcott, 1983). The "Not-so-free Gift" Persuasion Tactics The "Foot-in-the-door" technique: Small initial request (can't easily refuse) Higher chance a second greater request will be successful Freedman & Fraser (1966) Called: a few questions re: household products 3 days later: team of men in their house for two hours to inventory all household products Persuasion Tactics Freedman & Fraser (1966) Only large request: 22% agreed Small-Large request: 53% agreed Persuasion Tactics Low-Balling: making a commitment to sell someone an item at a lower cost than you actually intend to charge (Raise $ later). A two-step trap! Start small, then larger Once psychologically committed, often justify it even when feel misled Increase commitment: decrease changing mind Persuasion Tactics The "Door in the Face": Making initial request so large it will be rejected, then more reasonable request. Effective 2-step Tactic: Perceptual Contrast: Relativity Reciprocal Concessions: pressure to respond to changes in bargaining; similar to norm of reciprocity Persuasion Tactics The "that's not all technique": Offer service or product at a price, before can be rejected, then improve the deal. More effective than "good deal" first (Burger, 1986). Large to small approach Knowledge is power: avoid the traps! Activity In groups of 2: Create a scenario to role-play Use a persuasion tactic 1st "fall for it" 2nd "practice assertive response" Persuasion The process by which attitudes are changed How do you change someone's mind? Central vs. Peripheral routes Central: when we think critically about the content of the message Peripheral: focus on cues rather than critical evaluation of the information. Persuasion "The receptive ability of the masses is very limited, their understanding small; on the other hand, they have a great power of forgetting." Adolf Hitler, 1933 Hitler relied on propaganda: slogans, uniforms, flags, symbols. Persuasion Tactics The Norm of Reciprocity: Social norm and psychological desire to treat others as we have been treated. Golden Rule, An eye for an eye... This can be used to exploit us, compliance ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course PSYC 1 at San Jose State University .