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Unformatted text preview: Exercise Psychology Exercise Psychology
Day 26 Mental Health Aspects of Mental Health Aspects of Exercise Stress Reduction Effects of Exercise: Evidence and Mechanisms Reduced state and trait anxiety due to the rhythmic nature of exercise that stimulates an inhibitory or relaxation site in the brain stem of the CNS quieting cognitive activity associated with anxiety Reduced depression due to the release of biogenic amines (e.g., serotonin and norephinephrine) in the brain and/or the social interaction and increased self efficacy from exercise Cognitive Benefits Cognitive Benefits Cognitive Benefits Cognitive Benefits Cognitive Benefits Cognitive Benefits Vascular Changes increased cerebral blood flow Neurotrophic factors increased neurotransmitter levels (e.g., dopamine) in the brain Neural efficiency improved in the brain Fluid intelligence (reasoning or problem solving) improved more than crystallized intelligence (accumulated knowledge, word recognition, and recall facts) Genetic basis for loss of cognitive functioning in the elderly suggests physical inactivity may be more detrimental to some than others Goal Setting Goal Setting Goal Setting Goal Setting Progressive standards of success (shortterm goals) are set to increasingly approximate a desired standard of achievement (longterm goal) Goal setting is not a onesizefitsall endeavor • Identify the client’s or athlete’s true wants and needs Setting Goals for Feedback and Reinforcement Setting Goals for Feedback and Reinforcement Longterm (LT) goal provides a meaningful pursuit for client/athlete Shortterm (ST) goals provide a strategy to achieve the longterm goal via attainable steps • Feedback is inherent in the completion of or progress toward the ST goal and leads to the cognitive evaluation of success or failure • An effective yet challenging goal is one that has about a 50% chance of success • Successful achievement of ST goals leads to behavioral reinforcement and the development of selfesteem and selfefficacy Types of Goals Types of Goals LT and ST goals vary for each client/athlete; higher or greater the LT goal, more ST incremental goals are needed to reach LT goal Types of Goals Based on Personal Control • Process goals client/athlete has a high degree of control over • Outcome goals client/athlete has little control over • Performance goals fall in between in relation to control Process Goals Effort given during a workout Exercise form and technique Positive attitude during workout Important for maintenance of exercise behavior as success or goal accomplishment becomes increasingly difficult Outcome Goals Outcome Goals Progress or accomplishments gauged by social comparison (winning or beating an opponent) Can be highly arousing and induce great intensity for competitive individuals Probability of success is less for outcome goals compared to process goals as outcome of success is dependent on the performance of others and hence success can not be guaranteed Performance Goals Performance Goals More difficult to achieve than process goals Typically stated in terms of a selfreferenced performance standard for the client/athlete Examples • Increasing strength or cardiorespiratory fitness level • Reducing percent body fat Example of Setting a Performance Goal Example of Setting a Performance Goal
Average 3 to 5 recent 1RM efforts in the bench press Calculate the difference between the average 1RM and best 1RM Add the difference to the best 1RM to determine performance goal Recent 1RM efforts in bench press were 140 lb, 145 lb, 150 lb Average = 145 lb, best = 150 lb, difference = 5 lb, and new performance goal is 155 lb Diversified Goal Setting Diversified Goal Setting Successful goalsetting program should include a diverse combination of shortterm and longterm goals as well as process, outcome, and/or performance goals depending on the client/athlete During the consultation and assessment session with a new client/athlete, the trainer should maintain focus on the client’s or athlete’s desired goals and expected outcomes, and should develop a sound plan of action Goal Orientations Goal Orientations Clients or athletes who gauge their performance or fitness improvement on the basis of previous ability or fitness level are said to be tasked involved and process and performance goals would probably be best Clients or athletes who gauge their performance or fitness improvement on comparison to the performance of one or more others are said to be egoinvolved or otherreferenced and process and outcome goals would probably be best Tips for Effective Goal Setting Tips for Effective Goal Setting Identify the client’s or athlete’s needs and desires and plan longterm goals Identify steps and shortterms goals that will lead to longterm achievement Initial goals may best be process goals Develop knowledgebased goals to compliment the performance and/or fitness goals Gradually add in more aggressive and measurable outcome and performance goals Sent a time frame for the attainment of measurable outcome and performance goals Tips for Effective Goal Setting Tips for Effective Goal Setting Agree on a way to determine if the program is working toward the goals After setting goals, make sure client believes that the goals are obtainable Examine the goals to make sure the goals are compatible with one another Goals should be prioritized Attach a time frame to each goal and note if a goal is not achieved by the assigned date Goals can and should be evaluated and adjusted at regular intervals Motivation Motivation Motivation Motivation Internal drive or neural process that arouses and directs behavior Two dimensions of motivation • Direction aspect that affects choices about time and commitment to exercise and other program goals • Intensity with which choices are pursued Reinforcement Reinforcement Reinforcement increases the likelihood that a target or operant behavior will be repeated Positive reinforcement gives something to a client/athlete in response to a behavior (e.g., social approval or congratulations on a good workout) Negative reinforcement takes something away from a client/athlete in response to a behavior (something aversive is removed or taken away to reward behavior such as not requiring clients or athletes to rack their plates after a good workout is completed) Punishment Punishment Punishment decreases the likelihood that a target or operant behavior will be repeated Positive punishment involves presentation of something aversive such as criticism of a client for poor exercise techniques Negative punishment involves removal of something in order to decrease the likelihood of a behavior such as removal of a privilege because of poor exercise techniques or failure to reach a goal Self Determination or Internalization Self Determination or Internalization Intrinsic motivation engaging in a behavior for the sense of enjoyment derived for it; true love for the experience of exercise a sense of fun during its performance Extrinsic motivation engaged in a behavior to achieve another goal or outcome; desire to be engaged in a behavior to get an external reward Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation lies on a continuum Intrinsic motivation typically results in greater exercise adherence Important to know where a client or athlete falls on the continuum of motivation Major Points on the Continuum from External to Major Points on the Continuum from External to Internal Motivation of a Client/Athlete Amotivation total lack of motivation External regulation engagement in a behavior to avoid punishment Introjected regulation engagement in exercise as a means to a valued end Identified regulation follows trainer’s leadership because it is perceived as beneficial instead of personally initiating exercise behavior Integrated regulation personally values exercise behavior, internalizes it, and freely engages in it; client/athlete and trainer agree on the goals of the client Effect of Rewards Effect of Rewards External rewards can play a role in increasing intrinsic motivation and exercise adherence Rewards can also reduce intrinsic motivation if they are “controlling” Rewards can be viewed as “controlling” if the recipient perceives a contingency or connection between the behavior and the reward; removal of the reward may decrease the likelihood of the intended behavior occurring When to Intervene with Motivational Efforts When to Intervene with Motivational Efforts The transtheoretical model helps identify the stage of readiness for exercise participation By identifying a client’s or athlete’s stage of readiness, the trainer can apply the appropriate processes for change or interventions in order to move the client or athlete to the next level with the ultimate goals of action and maintenance Stage of Readiness of a Client or Athlete Stage of Readiness of a Client or Athlete Precontemplation no thought or intention of becoming physically active Contemplation thinks about and intends to become physically active; not physically active yet Preparation accumulates 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity one day per week Action accumulates 30 minutes of moderateintensity physical activity five or more days per week, but has done so for less than six months Maintenance accumulates 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity five or more days per week for more than six months SelfEfficacy: Building Confidence SelfEfficacy: Building Confidence Performance accomplishments or successful performance of a behavior Modeling effects or observing others perform a target behavior enhances imitative behavior Verbal persuasion from a respected source Before or during exercise physiological arousal/self belief can increase selfefficacy whereas anxiety/disbelief can decrease selfefficacy Achieving success has more impact than anything else on raising selfefficacy Methods to Motivate a Client Methods to Motivate a Client Minimizing Procrastination Minimizing Procrastination Almost everyone believes health and fitness are desirable attributes, but only a small percentage of the population commits to and maintains a healthy, exercise lifestyle Procrastination may occur if a client/athlete believes that there are too many options in diets, exercises, devices, training methods, etc Trainers need to provide a decisive leadership role through the many options so that a client/athlete is not left in a frozen or indecisive state trying to decide in the perceived pain outweighs the potential benefits Identifying False Beliefs Identifying False Beliefs Because of the many ‘quick fixes’ positioned as solutions, clients/athletes may have allowed false beliefs and information into their belief system False beliefs and information need to be eliminated before a trainer can install new empowering beliefs and information An effective line of communication between the trainer and client/athlete must be established through which education and reasoning can be effectively communicated and instilled Identifying and Modifying Self Talk Identifying and Modifying Self Talk ‘His or Her Internal Voice’ Positive self talk can be very motivating Negative self talk makes it almost impossible for a client/athlete to accept even the most positively directed affirmations Positive affirmations will be more effective if the client/athlete changes the negative selftalk first Modifying Self Talk Modifying Self Talk Ask client/athlete to notice and think about the types of his/her selftalk self talk during the day Ask the client/athlete to identify his/her self talk before and during training sessions Have client/athlete write down negative self talk on the left side of a piece of paper and on the right side how the self talk could be changed to be supportive or motivating instead Have client recite and rehearse the new, positive affirmations External encouragement will be more effective if the client/athlete changes his/her selftalk first Motivational Strategies Motivational Strategies Define your goals Set realistic goals Exercise with a group Exercise with a buddy Recruit the support of significant others Associate with other exercisers Schedule a definite time and place for exercise Build on successful experiences Exercise to music Participate in a variety of activities Keep a progress chart or daily log Other Psychological Tools for Other Psychological Tools for Performance Enhancement Mental Imagery Mental Imagery A cognitive psychological skill in which the client/athlete uses all of the senses to create a mental experience of the performance The client/athlete stimulates reality by mentally rehearsing a movement and/or imagining visual, auditory, kinesthetic, olfactory, and even exertional cues Hypnosis Hypnosis An induced state of hypersuggestibility Positive suggestions relating to a client’s or athlete’s performance potential are planted in the subconscious mind Systematic Desensitization Systematic Desensitization A technique that helps a client/athlete initially confront or reduce fears, which may have arisen from an association of previously neutral stimuli with a stressful event(s) Involves counterconditioning in which an athlete replaces a fear response to various cues with a relaxation response Physical Relaxation Techniques Physical Relaxation Techniques Diaphragmatic breathing involves belly breathing which focuses on breath (a controllable aspect of physiology) to clear the mind and therefore increase attentional capacity Physical Relaxation Techniques Physical Relaxation Techniques Progressive muscular relaxation a somatopsychic technique by which psychological and physical arousal are selfregulated through the control of muscular tension; involves performance of a series of alternate muscular tensing and relaxing phases in which the individual becomes aware of somatic tension and learns to control it Physical Relaxation Techniques Physical Relaxation Techniques Autogenic training an attentional state that focuses on the sense of warmth and heaviness of a particular limb or muscle group shifting autonomic neural processes from sympathetic dominance to parasympathetic dominance References References Earle and Baechle Chapter 8 Course Reader Section 32 QUESTIONS? QUESTIONS? COMMENTS? Identifying and Modifying Self Talk Identifying and Modifying Self Talk ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course KIN 155 at San Jose State.