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Mar0110PRINTABLE - How is genotype determined 0 Howdoes...

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Unformatted text preview: How is genotype determined? 0 Howdoes DNAcodeforthemaldngoi protehs? O HowdothetwocopiesofDNAyoucan-y worktogethertoauteyourphenotypei 0 Howdoyougetyourmcopiesofany chromosomeor locus through nuiosis? Me 0 How does meiosis divide cells? 0 What are haploid and diploid cells? 0 Describe the process of meiosis? 0 Whenandhowduingmeioslsisvariation introduced? 0 Howdoyougetnewmoo/pes? How is phenotype created? 0 phenotype = genotype + environmm 0 genotype=comblnationofthetwo particiesoflnherlnncewecarryfor etch locus 0 plus other involved loci Most human traits.. 0 Polygenic 0 controlled by 2 or more loci o Afiected by the environment 0 Many genes PLEIOTROPIC 0 a single gene has multiple effects Example: Height ° W = mom» + environment 0 envlronrmnt = diet. altitude. sleep. health 0 genotype = pairs of alleles at at least 5 loci («135. 9p24. l 3ql 2. l8q2I. 22ql3) Polygeny vs. Pleiotropy Heritability? Varibllty caused bum WinmedbyMs+qumedbyfieemlm theproporuonofdnuotalphenotyplc variability obsomd for aglven minim unbeascrlbodtogeneucfacm 7 Modern Synthesis 0 producflon and redistribution ofvarhdon 0 Namralsdecdonboneforoednnmm onthlsvaflaflontocausechengc Evolution = changes in gene frequencies over time Four Forces of Evolution 0 Mutation 0 Gene Flow 0 Genetic Drift 0 Natural Selection Mutation 0 The only way to Introduce new genetlc variation 0 Very common 0 many neural 0 many deleterious enough to get removed quickly 0 some are incorporated I) Movement of aleles within and bemoan populations Genetic Drift O Therandomfactor O Gmeflecthanallpopulation: 0 Foundereflect Genetic Drift - Founder Effect Natural selection 0 Wraprodmdvosmsw mlqzlogunndom 0 marbdmmmonmsfialm OMMngcoadnngchdmondn Woman Natural Selection Stabilizing selection Four Forces and Populations Success measured as Fitness 0 Success in mtural selection Is the abilty to put one'sgenes in the next generation 0 Thisanbedi'ectlyorindb'ecdy 0 Thosewhoputmoregeneslntothenext generadonaremorefif'thanothers Effects on Fitness 0 Own reproducdon O survivorshlp 0 health 0 seiaial opportunities 0 sexual selection e Reproduction of relatives 0 kin selection D Sexual selection Kin selection MICROEVOtUTION = the small change In gene frequencies In a population from generation to generation MACROEVOLUTION = the cumulative effect of these mldnngesoveralongperlodoftine-nuyleadw SPECIATION ...
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