Preschool_Outcomes - Research and Technology Paper...

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Quantitative and Qualitative Follow-Up Outcomes From a Preschool Audiologic Screening Program: Perspectives Over a Decade Yula C. Serpanos Adelphi University, Garden City, NY Fredi Jarmel Montclair State University, Clifton, NJ Purpose: This investigation reports on quantita- tive and qualitative follow-up information ob- tained from a preschool audiologic screening program covering a 10-year period (1995 to 2004). Method: The audiologic screening consisted of a hearing (pure tone) and tympanometry screen- ing. A total of 34,979 children, 3 to 5 years of age, were screened. Results: Eighteen percent (6,337) of the children were referred for further hearing and/or medical ear evaluation. Of 1,421 follow-up responses received, 93% complied with the follow-up rec- ommendations while 7% did not. Of 1,316 chil- dren in the follow-up group, outer and/or middle ear disorder in one or both ears was medically confirmed for 37%. Unilateral or bilateral hearing loss was diagnosed in 18% as conductive (12%), sensorineural (1%), mixed (0.4%), or unspecified (5%). Overall, hearing loss and/or otologic dis- order was confirmed in 49% of the follow-up group, suggesting a prevalence of 1.8% in a preschool-age population. A small ( n = 32) sample of unsolicited comments indicated that physicians most influenced noncompliance with hearing evaluation follow-up. Conclusions: The quantitative hearing and otologic follow-up outcome data affirm the importance of audiologic screening in the pre- school population. Qualitative data suggest that some physicians may not be advocating appropriate screening follow-up services. Key Words: audiologic screening, preschool- age children, hearing and otologic follow-up E arly diagnosis and remediation of hearing loss are essential in reducing the potential impact on a child s speech-language skills, behavioral development, and academic performance (American Speech-Language- Hearing Association [ASHA], 2002; Joint Committee on Infant Hearing [JCIH], 2000; Yoshinaga-Itano, Sedey, Coulter, & Mehl, 1998). Universal newborn hearing screen- ing, as advocated by the JCIH (2000), serves a major role in the early identification of hearing loss at birth. Currently, mandates in 40 states and the District of Columbia, in addition to voluntary compliance programs in 5 states, have ensured access to newborn hearing screening services (ASHA, 2007). Despite the wide availability of infant hearing screening services, congenital hearing loss, particularly mild or uni- lateral forms, may be missed in some infants (J. L. Johnson et al., 2005; White et al., 2005; Widen et al., 2005). White and colleagues (2005) estimated that approximately 23% of infants with permanent hearing loss would have passed the automated auditory brainstem response screening used in typical infant hearing screening paradigms. In addition, late-onset or acquired hearing loss may occur at any time throughout childhood as a result of various causes, including infectious diseases such as meningitis or otitis media (JCIH, 2002). Approximately 3 in 1,000 children will present with acquired deafness in early childhood (Northern & Downs, 2002). Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the main cause
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course EDAU 177 at San Jose State University .

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Preschool_Outcomes - Research and Technology Paper...

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