schizophrenia - Psychopathology Schizophrenia Signs &...

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1 Psychopathology Schizophrenia Possible Causes Nursing Diagnoses Teaching plans
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2 Psychopathology Prevalence - 20% (12 months period) Anxiety disorder - most prevalent Mood disorder (collectively) Alcohol disorders Major depression Comorbidity - 17% Help seeking - 60-80%
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3 Understanding Psychopathology Organized knowledge - understand Operational definition - communicate Criteria for diagnosis - DSM IV Behavior - subjective/ objective Etiology - nature/nurture
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4 Schizophrenia the most debilitating mental illnesses Greek terms - "splitting of the mind” do not have more than one distinct personality distortions in their perceptions, feelings, and relationships with the world around them. 1% of the population suffer (in 12 m period)
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5 The mental health continuum for schizophrenia Mild Moderate Severe Psychosis Anxiety Anxiety Cause Physical conditions Anxiety disorder Somatoform disorders Dissociative disorders Personality disorders Grief Major depression
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6 Epidemiology 95% of sufferers – lasts a lifetime 1/3 of homeless suffer from Schizo 15% no respond to med; 75% partial effective 20-50% attempt suicide 10% kill themselves 20% shorter life expectancy 25% experience secondary depression
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7 Causes of Schizophrenia Genetic factors Chemical imbalance & physical abnormalities – neurotransmitters, brain structures Biological factors – age, virus, … Environmental factors – chr. Life stressors, changes, …
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8 Causes - genetic influences Identical twin affected 50% Fraternal twin affected 15% Both parent affected 35% One parent affected 15% Brother or sister affected 10% No affected relative 1%
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9 Alterations in personal relationships Alternations of activity Altered perception Alterations of thought Distorted thinking Altered consciousness Alterations of affect
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10 Bleular's 4 A's Autism - preoccupation with the self with little concern for external reality Associative looseness - the stringing together of unrelated topics Ambivalence - simultaneous opposite feelings Affective disturbance - inappropriate, blunted, or flattened affect
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11 Positive Symptoms - recognizable Positive (type I) symptoms; delusion (fixed false beliefs), hallucination (false perception) Excess dopamine in the limbic system -> embellishments of normal cognition and perception Responsive to antipsychotics
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12 Negative Symptoms - what is missing Lack of affect or energy Attribute to cortical dysfunction ie atrophy, decreased cerebral blood flow, increased ventricular brain ratios, and a hypodopaminergic state. Overactive glutamate in the prefrontal cortex
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schizophrenia - Psychopathology Schizophrenia Signs &...

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