Lecture 4 s 10 fallacies 2

Lecture 4 s 10 fallacies 2 - FALLACIES OF WEAK INDUCTION 9....

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FALLACIES OF WEAK INDUCTION 9. Appeal to unqualified authority Arguer cites an unreliable authority 10. Appeal to ignorance Absence of evidence used as evidence of absence 11. Hasty generalization Conclusion drawn from atypical sample 12. False Cause Wrongly concludes a causal connection 13. Slippery slope Conclusion depends on an unlikely chain reaction 14. Weak analogy Conclusion depends on a defective analogy
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FALLACIES OF PRESUMPTION Fallacies of presumption, ambiguity a nd grammatical analogy all wrongly presume what they purport to prove 15. Begging the question Presents inadequate premises as adequate 16. Complex question Complex question concealed in a simple question 17. False dichotomy Wrongly assumes the alternatives in an either-or premise are jointly exhaustive 18. Suppressed evidence Wrongly presumes all important evidence included
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AMBIGUITY, GRAMMATICAL ANALOGY 19. Equivocation Conclusion depends on a shift in meaning of a key word or phrase 20. Amphiboly Conclusion depends on the wrong interpretation of a syntactically ambiguous statement 21. Composition Attribute wrongly transferred from parts to whole 22. Division Attribute wrongly transferred from whole to parts
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9. APPEAL TO AUTHORITY The arguer cites a witness or authority who is unreliable : A. The source is not a genuine authority on the issue B. The source is biased or has some other reason to mislead C. The source lacks the requisite ability to perceive or recall. D. The issue can NOT be settled by expert opinion
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A. The source is not a genuine authority on the issue I’m not a doctor but I play one on TV. B. The source is biased or has some other reason to lie Julie testifies that her boyfriend was home with her watching The Painted Veil and eating Cherry Garcia at the time of the crime.
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C. The witness lacks the ability to perceive or recall. Lucy Furguson, who is legally blind and has never in her life left the state of Arizona testifies that she saw the defendant, on the dark and starless night of April 12 in Sacramento California . . . D. The issue can NOT be settled by expert opinion The eminent physicist doctor A says that God exists.
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10. APPEAL TO IGNORANCE The arguer asserts . . . a. that a claim must be true because no one has proven it false There must be intelligent life on other planets – no one has proven that there isn’t. b. that a claim must be false because no one has proven it true There isn’t any intelligent life on other planets – no one has proven that there is.
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SUSPENDING JUDGEMENT Lack of evidence can neither prove nor disprove a proposition. You can’t disprove my theory that batboy was a
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course LING 21 at San Jose State University .

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Lecture 4 s 10 fallacies 2 - FALLACIES OF WEAK INDUCTION 9....

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