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12-Midterm-Review-10 - Music 12 Midterm Review I HISTORY...

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Music 12 Midterm Review I. HISTORY History: A written narrative (a story) told from a particular point of view about what was written in the past. The source of historical knowledge is usually what was written, in contrast to what is physically preserved (the realm of archaeology). Historians frequently emphasize the importance of written records. This emphasis has led to the term prehistory , referring to a time before written sources are available. Since writing emerged at different times throughout the world, the distinction between prehistory and history often depends on the topic. Western-European “History” can be thought of as beginning in with the Ancient Greeks of Classical Antiquity and the first written record of the Olympic Games in BC 776… And with the Founding of Rome in BC 753 The inclusion of Mesopotamia (4,000 B.C.)—located in the Middle East—in this “Western-European” narrative is for the reason of its invention and use of writing, including the notation of music. Music History , thus, has generally been the study of both the development of music notation and the music that was written down. Western-European History is broadly divided into “ Three Ages ”: 1. Antiquity : c. 776 to 476 AD (the fall of Rome) 2. The Middle Ages: 476 to 1500s (“in-between” the Fall of Rome and the Protestant Reformation) 3. The Modern Era: 1500s to present The Middle Ages (approximately 1,000 years) is generally divided into three periods : 1. Early Middle Ages (500 AD to c.1100) 2. “High” Middle Ages (1100 to mid-1300s and the appearance of the Black Death in the 1340s), including the musical periods of a. The Ars Antiqua (1200s) b. The Ars Nova (1300s) 3. Late Middle Ages (late 1300s to around 1500) The Modern Era (musically speaking) is divided into 1. The Renaissance (c1470s to 1600) 2. The Baroque (1600-1750) 3. The Enlightenment / Classical (1720-c.1805) 4. Romantic (c.1805-1890) 5. Modern (1890-present) * * * * *
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II. ANTIQUITY “Music” from the word “muse”—“ mousike ” [the art presided over by the Muses] Mesopotamian Notation c. 1400 BCE The oldest existing notated music is a Hurrian cult hymn from circa 1400 B.C . from Ugarit (present-day Ras Shamra in Syria). One of the Mesopotamian civilizations, the Babylonians, use diatonic modal scales and other theoretical principles of music at least a millennium before the Greeks used them. 1 Hurrian Cult Song [Mesopotamia, c. 1400 BCE] Hymn to Nikkal, wife of the Moon God Four stanzas, each with refrain 1 and 4 same; 2 and 3 same (i.e. AB|Cb 1 |c 2 b 2 |a 2 b 3 )—includes “harmony No notation for rhythm . There are twice as many syllables as there are notes—are you supposed to repeat the tune? Pitches are based on the tuning of a lyre to read notes, leading to differing interpretations for the pitches of the song Biblical Notation: Ta’amim One archaeologist has interpreted the Ta’amim symbols inscribed in scrolls of Hebrew Scripture (c. 1,000 BC ) probably served as notation models for the earliest written chant music of the Christian church Hebrew, like many middle-Eastern languages—is consonants only Nekudot
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12-Midterm-Review-10 - Music 12 Midterm Review I HISTORY...

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