nchrp_rrd_294 - February 2005 NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY...

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Research Results Digest 294 February 2005 CONTENTS Summary, 1 Introduction, 2 Background on Indicators of TOD Success, 3 Review of TOD Benefits and Indicators, 11 Survey of TOD Indicators, 14 Conclusions and Suggestions for Evaluating TOD, 22 Appendices, 25 SUMMARY This digest offers a strategy to sys- tematically evaluate the potential success of transit-oriented development. The di- gest identifies and evaluates various indi- cators of the impacts of transit-oriented development, provides the results of a survey of transit-oriented development indicators, and identifies ten indicators that can be used to systematically moni- tor and measure impacts. Over the past decade, transit-oriented development (TOD) has gained in popu- larity as a planning tool to promote smart growth. Many articles, books, reports, and plans have discussed the potential benefits of TOD, which vary broadly. But except for studies focusing on transit ridership and land value near stations, little empirical re- search has been conducted to holistically measure the outcomes of TOD. This study builds on a number of recent projects— namely, work at Rutgers University dealing with the New Jersey Transit Village Ini- tiative and the recently published TCRP Report 102: Transit Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Chal- lenges, and Prospects (Cervero et al., 2004). This digest summarizes research con- ducted to determine the wide range of out- comes and benefits of TOD. The digest also look at who is evaluating TOD across the United States, what are the most useful indicators, how difficult it is to collect data, and how often progress should be moni- tored. It concludes with suggestions for de- veloping a strategy to monitor the success of TOD. In looking across the United States to determine what indicators exist, 56 bene- fits/indicators were identified and catego- rized into five groups: travel behavior, eco- nomic, environmental, built environment, and social diversity/quality. A survey was then conducted of transportation profession- als from state departments of transportation, metropolitan planning organizations, county and local governments, and transit agencies concerning the usefulness of each indicator, the difficulty in obtaining the data for each indicator, and the frequency with which each indicator should be monitored. Based on this research, the most use- ful indicators are transit ridership, density, quality of streetscape, quantity of mixed-use structures, pedestrian activity and safety, in- crease in property value and tax revenue, public perception, number of mode con- nections at the transit station, and parking. While data collection is relatively easy for TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT: DEVELOPING A STRATEGY TO MEASURE SUCCESS This digest summarizes key findings from NCHRP Project 20-65(5), “Transit-Oriented Development: Developing a Strategy to Measure Success,” conducted by John L. Renne and Jan S. Wells of the Alan M.
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nchrp_rrd_294 - February 2005 NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY...

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