Notes+3-17 - David Garland, The Culture of Control: Crime...

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David Garland, The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society, Univ of Chicago Press, 2005 Ch. 1, A History of the Present He catalogs 12 major, and abrupt, changes in responses to crime during 80’s and 90’s: 1) The decline of the rehabilitative ideal. Penal policy moved from 1 to 2. 2) The reemergence of punitive sanctions and expressive justice 3) Changes in the emotional tone of crime policy The move was from “one of confident progress in combating crime in rationalizing criminal justice” to “fear of crime” as “a problem in and of itself “. (10) 4) The return of the victim The move was from seeing victims’ “interests… subsumed under the general public interest, and certainly not counter-posed to the interests of the offender” to the view that “victims must be protected, their voices must be heard, their memory honoured, their anger expressed, their fears addressed.” (11) 5) Prioritization of protecting the public The move was from “concern about the civil liberties of suspects, and the rights of prisoners” to “a new energy emphasis upon the need for security, the containment of danger, he desiccation and management of any kind of risk.” (12) 6) Politicization and new populism The move was from seeing crime policy as a “bipartisan matter they can be devolved to professional experts” to “a prominent issue in a electoral competition”. (13) 7) The reinvention of the prison The move was from seeing the prison “as a problematic institution, necessary as a last resort, but counterproductive and poorly oriented to correctionalist goals” to the “deepest and most sustained increase in the rate of imprisonment that has been recorded since the birth of the modern prison in the 19th century.” (14) 8) The transformation of criminological thought The move was from the criminologies of the welfare state which “tended to assume the perfectibility of man, to see crime as a sign of an under-achieving socialization process, and to look to the state to assist those who have been deprived of the economic, social, and psychological provision necessary for proper social adjustment and law-abiding conduct” to control theories which “begin from a much darker the vision of the human condition. They soon individuals will be strongly attracted to self-serving, antisocial, and criminal conduct unless inhibited from doing so by robust and effective controls, and they look to the authority of the family, the community, and the state to uphold restrictions and inculcate restraint.” (15) 9) The expanding infrastructure of crime prevention 10) Commercialization of crime control Nine and ten chart the move from seeing crime as “a problem to be governed through the policing, prosecution and punishment of individual lawbreakers” by the state to enlisting the “activity of citizens, communities and companies… [with] a more expansive conception of crime control… [utilizing] techniques and strategies that are quite different
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Notes+3-17 - David Garland, The Culture of Control: Crime...

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