What is language revised

What is language revised - What is Language What Chapter 1...

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Unformatted text preview: What is Language? What Chapter 1 Chapter Introduction to Second Language Development (forthcoming) Introduction Dr. Swathi M. Vanniarajan Dr. · Language defined “brain gymnastics” s observable output observable s Linguists’ perspectives Linguists’ s Group of symbols (e.g., a word or a Group sentence standing for a concept) sentence Different Views of Language Interdisciplinary study Interdisciplinary s Language is a mental and social Language phenomenon s Chomsky: linguistic structures are cognitive Chomsky: structures s s Linguists’ View of Language – – Language is a system of symbols Language is a grammatical system with four Language subsystems subsystems » Phonology and phonological knowledge » Morphology and morphological knowledge » Syntax and syntactic knowledge » semantics – Lexicon: arbitrary Lexicon: – Discourse Discourse Put them all together, and... Put s you get discourse Educational linguists’ perspectives Educational s 4 skills – “Natural skills” (p. 6) – “Literacy skills” (p. 6) s Communicative competence Communicative (Canale & Swain) (Canale Canale & Swain’s Definition of Communicative competence Definition s Grammatical competence Sociolinguistic competence Strategic competence Strategic Discourse competence Discourse s s s Psyschology and linguistics Psyschology s Two areas of study: – how the brain encodes language – how language-learning takes place s Two major perspectives: – Behaviorism (empiricism) – Innatism (nativism) s Behaviorism (Empiricism) – Language is verbal behavior or a set of verbal Language habits habits – Language is a set of structural patterns – Language is learned through rigorous practice Language and repetition so patterns become habits s Innatism (Nativism) – Language is a rule-governed abstract symbolic Language system – Language consists of a dictionary-like storage Language system (lexicon) and a rule-governed system with four subsystems – Language is genetic and inherent Language – Language is a mental organ – Language is species specific Language Prescriptive vs. descriptive Prescriptive s Prescriptivism – Follow standards to ensure purity/correctness s Descriptivism Descriptivism – Describe the language as it is used Prescriptive vs. Descriptive Grammar s Prescriptive Grammar Prescriptive – – – – – – – Traditionally grammar was prescriptive Tells people how they should speak and write Differences are not tolerated Dialects are impure variations Standard language is pure Standard All variations from standard form are incorrect Changes in language are for the worse Prescriptive vs. Descriptive Grammar Grammar s Descriptive Grammar Descriptive – In modern linguistics, grammars not In prescriptive but descriptive prescriptive – Realization that languages constantly change Realization – Describes how people speak and write at a point Describes in time – No such thing as good and bad English No – Dialects are variation, not impurity Dialects – No linguistic difference among dialects No – All dialects are equally complex Dialects Idiolect – how an individual speaks a Idiolect language language s Dialect – a group of people who speak in a Dialect similar manner but different than others who speak the language s Mutual intelligibility is the test to see if Mutual language or dialect s Ways of speaking Ways s Dialect: a unique form spoken and Dialect: understood by a community understood Dialects [cont’d] Dialects s Dialects vary from one another in six ways: Dialects – – – – – – Spelling variation Phonological variation Phonological Lexical variation Lexical Morphological variation Morphological Syntactic variation Syntactic Semantic variation Semantic Standard Language Standard variety is not superior to any other Standard variety. s Standard variety is also a dialect. s Standard variety is spoken by the elite, Standard educated and ruling classes. s Standardization of a language Standardization s – – – Selection Selection Elaboration of function Elaboration Codification Codification Why Not to Impose Standard Variety Learners have a right to use their dialects, Learners guaranteed by constitution s Must celebrate learners’ heritage Must s Dialects are part of learners’ home culture Dialects s Why Not to Impose Standard Variety By recognizing dialects, we validate home By culture – good for learners’ self esteem s Using dialects in academic settings does not Using negatively impact academic performance s Conclusion Conclusion Language is defined differently by different Language people s Linguists: system of symbols s Educational linguists: four skills & Educational communicative competence communicative s Behaviorism and innatism are two Behaviorism psychological schools interested in the study of language learning phenomenon. study s Traditionally grammars used to be Traditionally prescriptive s Conclusion [cont’d] Conclusion s s s s Modern linguists view grammar as descriptive. Modern All dialects are linguistically equal. All Standard variety of a language is linguistically not Standard better than any other variety. Language teachers should not impose standard Language variety on learners but help learners to learn standard variety while maintaining home variety. standard Discussion Questions 1. 1. 2. 2. How will you validate your students’ home How language while helping them to develop academic English? Describe at least one specific class activity or homework assignment. How can you use your knowledge that no dialect How is linguistically superior to any other dialect to help your students develop a healthy self esteem? Describe at least one specific class activity or homework assignment. Discussion Questions (cont’d) Discussion 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. How can you use your students’ diverse language How backgrounds to show your students that all languages are linguistically equal? Describe at least one specific class activity or homework assignment. How can you show your learners that everyone speaks How different varieties of English at different times with different people (i.e. home, school, place of employment, etc.)? Describe at least one specific class activity or homework assignment. How can you show your learners that languages are How constantly changing? Describe at least one specific class activity or homework assignment. ...
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