cross-cultural I-O psychology 4

Cross-cultural I-O - Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology 1 Past Present and Future of Cross-Cultural Studies in Industrial and Organizational Psychology

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Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology 1 Past, Present, and Future of Cross-Cultural Studies in Industrial and Organizational Psychology Sharon Glazer San José State University
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Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology 2 Past, Present, and Future of Cross-Cultural Studies in Industrial and Organizational Psychology Introduction Interest in cultural research began with the Father of Psychology, Wilhelm Wundt (Öngel & Smith, 1994), but pursuit in the assessment of cultural differences and similarities was put on the back burner until recently. Cross-cultural studies in Industrial and Organizational (I/O) psychology further lacks a history (cf. Erez, 1994a). Although work-related psychology research is plentiful in single-nation studies, such as the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, Israel, India, Germany, Japan, and Finland, cross-cultural I/O psychology research may be insufficient because there are not enough theories in single nation I/O psychology studies, in general. And Berry (1989) suggests, deriving etics (i.e., universal theories) might be done by imposing a theory established in one culture to other cultures. Nonetheless, there was a thrust in cross-cultural comparative research after the 1980’s when Hofstede (1980) published his research of a typology of values (individualism-collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity-femininity) on which to compare more than forty nations. Most of the countries exemplified in cross-cultural research are in fields other than I/O psychology. In the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology only two I/O related articles were published in the period from 1970-1993 (Öngel & Smith, 1994). Should one consider social psychology to be strongly related to I/O psychology in terms of themes addressed then one might presume that articles falling under the cross-cultural social psychology heading may be relevant to cross-cultural I/O psychology, as well. Examining only human resources and organizational behavior journals, Tayeb (1994) noted that nearly 94 percent of the articles mentioned the importance of cross-cultural research, but very few had actually tested its relevance. Erez (1994a) also found that of over 2,000 articles from thirteen English-language
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Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology 3 journals, written by authors from eight different countries, under the heading of “Applied and Organizational Psychology,” during the period of 1980-1989, only twenty-one were cross- cultural studies! The purpose of this chapter is to present a review of cross-cultural and cross-national studies that have been conducted in I/O psychology-related topics and determine topics for future research. Before delving into the literature review, it would serve well to note here that while the terms “cross-cultural” and “cross-national” are very different, they will be used interchangeably as a result of their misuse in the studies reviewed. It is my belief that cross- cultural research is conducted when culture variables are studied as explanations for nations’
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2010 for the course PSYC 190 at San Jose State University .

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Cross-cultural I-O - Cross-Cultural I/O Psychology 1 Past Present and Future of Cross-Cultural Studies in Industrial and Organizational Psychology

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