Terms and Definitions for Chapter 3.docx - Terms and...

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Terms and Definitions for Chapter 3. Juan Ponce De Leon : Conquerer of Puerto Rico, to make the first official expedition to the mainland, which he named Florida to mark the day of his landfall. He met armed resistance from the natives everywhere he went. He died miserably. Juan de Onate : brutal conquistador, who conquered New Mexico and claimed it for Spain in the 1590s. Some Puebloes resisted Onate’s efforts to impose Spanish culture and religion, conquistador make an example of Acoma Pueblo. It took three days to subdue the settlement. Onate orders when it is over 800 Natives executed and made slaves of the nearly 700 survivors. In addition each male survivor over the age of 25 had one foot chopped off. The Church and state stepped in, and Onate was removed. Natives placed under military and religious protection. Franciscans : They would be key players in Spanish North America. Members of a medieval religious order founded by St. Francis of Assisi, Franciscan monks gave up property, remained celibate, and survived by begging for alms or accepting donations from wealthy patrons. The wore only sandals, simple robes, and a rope belt and took it as their charge to live with and minister to the poor. They accompanied Columbus on his second voyage, and they began ministering to the Indians of central Mexico soon after Tenochtitlan fell. They went on to become powerful figures in colonial New Mexico. Pope : A prominent Tewa man who laid the groundwork for a general uprising against the Spaniards. Appealing to headmen throughout the Pueblo world, he called for a war to purify the land. On August 10, 1680, Indians from across New Mexico rose up and began killing Spaniards. He put the town of Santa Fe underseige. He had led one of the most successful pan- Indian uprising in North America history, the Pueblo Revolt sent shock waves throughout Spanish America, and left the Catholic devout agonizing over what they might have done to provoke God’s wrath. Beaver Wars: a series of conflicts at least as profoundly transformative for the colonial north as the Indian slave wars were for the south. Seeking new hunting grounds and new captives to replenish their diminishing population, Iroquois raiders attacked peoples near and far. They attacked the Hurons and after them, they struck and scattered the nearby Petuns, Eries, and Neutrals—peoples who, like the Hurons, were all Iroquoian speakers and could thus be integrated into Iroquois communities with relative ease. Iroquios warriors next moved against non-Iroquoian groups, including Delawares and Shawnees in the Ohio Valley, and even extended their raids south to the Carolinas. To the North they attacked Algonquins in the Canadian Shield, and Abenakis and others in New England. The Beaver Wars continued in fits and starts for the rest of the 17 th century, bringing dozens of Indian nations to grief and provoking a massive refugee crisis as families fled their traditional territories and tried to rebuild their lives in peace.
They also nearly led to the ruin of New France.

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