03Stresss09 - What is Stress Stress Stress is a negative...

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1 Stress What is Stress? ± Stress is a negative emotional experience accompanied by predictable ± Biochemical changes ± Physiological changes ± Cognitive changes, and ± Behavioral changes That are directed either toward altering the stressful event or accommodating to its effects. Body’s Job in Stressful Situation 1. Conserve energy 2. Mobilize energy 3. Turn off projects planned for next few hours 4. Turn off growth/reproduction 5. Turn off immune responses Theories of Stress ± Historically, two main theorists ± Selye ± First, stressor, then stress ± Lazarus ± Integrationist or transactional approach Selye’s Model: General Adaptation Syndrome Selye’s Model ± Emphasized the physiology of stress ± Most of his research was on nonhuman animals ± Didn’t address interpretation and perception
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2 Lazarus’s Model ± Not the event that stresses, but the understanding of the event ± Defined stress as ± “a particular relationship between the person and the environment that is appraised by the person as taxing or exceeding his or her resources and endangering his or her well-being” Lazarus’s Model ± Transactional Model — The experience of stress depends as much on how an event is appraised as it does on the event itself ± Primary appraisal — Determination of an event’s meaning ± Secondary appraisal — Evaluation of one’s ability to meet the demands of a challenging event ± Cognitive reappraisal — Process by which events are constantly reevaluated The Transactional Model of Stress Implications of Lazarus’s Model ± Situations or events are not inherently stressful or unstressful ± Cognitive appraisals are extremely susceptible to changes in mood, health, motivation ± The body’s stress response is nearly the same, whether a situation is actually experienced or merely imagined Other Models of Stress and Illness ± Diathesis-Stress Model — An individual’s susceptibility to stress and illness is determined by two interacting factors ± Predisposing Factors (in the person) ± genetic vulnerability ± acquired behavioral or personality traits ± Precipitating Factors (from the environment) ± traumatic experiences Other Models of Stress and Illness ± Tend-and-Befriend Theory — Theory that females are more likely than males to respond to stressors with behaviors that: ± Quiet, nurture, and care for offspring (tending) ± Establish and maintain social networks (befriending)
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03Stresss09 - What is Stress Stress Stress is a negative...

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